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different statistical and empirical methods ( Blume/Fromm 1999 : 418). Thus, a classification, combination and comparison of the different local results is not straightforward. This paper aims to determine the importance of each university location within Lower Saxony in relation to its own local economy as well as in comparison with the other university locations, and tries to detect spatial disparities or patterns. The objective is to quantify, compare and classify the different economic demand-and supply-side contributions of each university location within Lower


The closing years of the 20th century witnessed profound changes in the European housing market, characterised by an increase in owner-occupied housing; instability of house prices (leading to a serious crisis in some regions, in light of a fall in demand); a change in people’s attitude to the housing market, involving a rise in the importance of location, the quality of materials and spaces, environmental sustainability, and architectural and urban innovation.

The European Union does not have a common housing policy, which it believes is the responsibility of Member-States. However, it is recognised that the problems related to the socio-urban inclusion of low-income individuals do have an impact on Community policies.

Because we are in the midst of a transformation, it is difficult to talk today about the dynamics and policies of housing, the functioning of markets, and thereby about the ways in which public administrations are facing the current crisis of real estate overproduction.

This article aims at analysing the dynamics of the housing market in Portugal as compared with other European countries, highlighting the characteristics of demand and supply and the main changes recorded in the last few years.


The present study aims at highlighting some of the impacts that labour market an education mutually have on each other both in the context of economies in transition (even if they used to have long historic traditions related to pioneering in instruction and education at mass and elite level) and that of a steady and consequent capitalist state undisturbed by the storms of radical political changes and periods of totally negating the values and results created by former historic eras and communities.

The main idea is that the relationship between the labour market and education is that of a mutual demand and supply based corelation, permanently influencing each other, so no political or economic authority and power should miss taking this into consideration unless they want to fail.


Two problems appear to be most topical in conjunction with mortgage valuation practices during an economic crisis: the assessment of sustainable long-term mortgage values and the assessment of liquidation discounts to prevailing market values which would provide for the most advantageous liquidation/quick sale strategy. This paper addresses the latter issue, which has traditionally proven intractable to analytical modeling. Apart from reviewing some research devoted to the subject of liquidation value modeling, predominantly from the Eastern European perspective, where this issue has, for years, commanded a particular economic interest, this paper synthesizes the best features of this research and builds on it to propose its own model, which lays equal emphasis on both the sellerside and demand-side perspectives. The first perspective accounts for the financial interests of a lender in forced sale disposals, while the latter perspective engages economic analysis on the side of market feasibility of identified efficient lender disposal strategies. By negotiating both perspectives, an optimal analytic solution to the issue of liquidation value discounts can be obtained. This is achieved by what we call a SI-MI framework which is developed throughout the paper.

We also adapt this framework specifically to the mortgage banking context where we use it to bring to light some rarely discussed linkages between the LTV policies of a bank and its mortgage liquidation strategies. This also allows us to propose a model and an LTV formula which can help organize thinking about optimal LTV policies in credit issuing processes.

We hope that, with the re-appearance of liquidation value basis/premise of valuation as a recognized international basis of valuation in the new edition of the International Valuation Standards (IVS 2017), the findings of this paper will become topical.


This study indicates signs of recovery in the oil price beyond 2020 and predicts oil prices will reach $80 in 2022. This scenario posits an opposite view to a large number of experts who believe that oil prices will remain low for a long time. The second less preferred scenario predicts oil prices of $60 in 2022 due to a big spread in shale oil production technology worldwide, combined with a significant increase in oil production costs.


Based on the methods used by economic theory, the study analyses the labour demand of companies and pays special attention to people with changed working ability. The European Union emphasizes the development of active employment policy programmes in line with the wide range of benefits linked to additional labour force utilization in our country. Tax liabilities and tax allowances related to additional labour force utilization significantly affect the profitability of companies. For this reason, the study examines the effects of the use of the production factor in certain cases on the profit based on the example of a 25-person company. Despite active employment policy measures, experience shows that the labour demand of companies is less directed towards people with changed working abilities. However, in this situation, besides the estimated lower labour productivity, infrastructural and sociological factors also play an important role.

References BAYOUMI, T., EICHENGREEN, B. (1993). Shocking Aspects of European Monetary Integration. In Adjustment and Growth in the European Monetary Union. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 193-230. ISBN 978-05214400196. BLANCHARD, O. J., QUAH, D. (1989). The Dynamics Effects of Aggregate Demand and Supply Disturbances. American Economic Review.79 (4), pp. 655 - 673. ISSN 0002-8282. CHRISZT, M. (2000).Perspective in a Potential North American Monetary Union. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. Economic Review. 2000 (4), pp. 29-38. ISSN 0732-1813. COHEN, B


The paper presents analysis of the achieved development level of the housing market in Serbia. Various factors that have shaped demand and supply are systematized and their impact over the last decade was analysed and monitored. As important ones demographic, macroeconomic and financial factors are singled out and a special importance is given to the analysis of specific historical and socio-political circumstances that have influenced the development of the housing market during the period of analysis.


This article analyses the demand and supply aspects of the determinants of CPI inflation in Lithuania in 1998-2008. Content analysis was used to identify and group significant demand and supply inflation factors and using RGT, objectively assess and generalize the results. Pair linear correlation analysis confirmed the significance for CPI inflation of the factors identified through content analysis, and both research methods reliably and effectively helped to identify factors for regression models of inflation. Content analysis revealed that the causes of inflation most often mentioned and traditionally regarded as significant in the economic literature are factors such as money and wages, capital, competition and monopolies, and so on. Pair correlation research showed the significance for inflation of supply and demand factors such as income distribution, income levels, taxes, saving, human capital and labour productivity as well as exports and imports - things which content analysis gave only average or little mention. Regression models confirmed and helped to concretize the significance for inflation of the identified demand and supply factors. The results of the research show that inconsistent monetary and general government expenditure policies reinforce private consumption and capital shocks. Note that human capital and employment, which changed little during the analysed period, did not show the large significance for inflation that they are commonly thought to have.

depict the results of the simulation of different scenarios considering envelope renovation rates, legislation standards, and heating system changes. Then we provide an analysis of the potential for renewable energies in the region. Finally, we discuss the potential alignment of regional demand and supply, and derive policy implications on this basis. 2 Study area The “ Energieregion Weiz-Gleisdorf” (EWG) was established in 1996. It includes 18 municipalities in Styria, along with the towns of Weiz and Gleisdorf, and covers an area of 264 km 2 . EWG is an industrial