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Abstract

The objective of the paper was to determine the level of circumferential stress in a wall of an open milk tank and to assess the tank wall degree of utilization according to the FKM Guideline calculation algorithm − Analytical Strength Assessment of Components, Made of Steel Cast Iron and Aluminium Materials in Mechanical Engineering. (German: FKM – Forschungskuratorium für Maschinenbau). The stress level in the tank wall was determined based on analytical calculations and numerical method using the FEA – Finite Elements Analysis. Numerical calculations were made in FEMAP with NX NASTRAN Solver (NASTRAN – NASA Structure Analysis). Similar stress values were found using two independent calculation methods. The difference between obtained stress values does not exceed 2%. Based on the FKM algorithm, the safety factor jges = 1.4 and static capacity of the tank wall ask = 19.7% were calculated.

Abstract

Research background. The analysis of the funding gap for SMEs and loan and guarantee funds’ capability to fill this gap has been undertaken to assess the instruments used in Poland which are focused on the development of entrepreneurship.

Methodology/methods. The funding gap for small and medium-sized enterprises is measured with the method of unfulfilled demand for funding and unawarded funding. The size of the gap is compared to the potential amount of the guarantees and loans granted by non-bank organisations in Poland dependent on the amount of capital held.

Purpose of the article. The purpose of the article is to answer the research question of whether guarantee and loan funds in Poland play a significant role in filling the funding gap for small and medium-sized enterprises

Findings & Value added Guarantee and loan funds are not able to fill the equity gap of SMEs in Poland due to low capital resources compared with needs, and an insufficient number of institutions offering non-bank funding. Also, the high risk attributed to loans granted to small and medium-sized entrepreneurs influences the low degree of utilisation of the capital already held, both by loan and guarantee funds. The unutilised capital is deposited in bank accounts and does not lead to the increase of the multiplier effect. The analysis concerns the specificity of the support system for SMEs in Poland and cannot be generalised to systems in other countries. However, the conclusions from the conducted analysis and the methodology of calculation of the equity gap may serve other researchers as a basis for creating their own theses and research hypotheses.

-125. Johnson R. M., Ellis M. D., Mullin C. A., Frazier M. (2010) - Pesticides and honey bee toxicity - U.S.A., Apidologie , 41(3): 312-331. Kołtowski Z. (2007) - Degree of utilization of potential sugar yield of a rapeseed plantation by insects inrespect of rapeseed honey yield in an apiary. J. Apic. Sci ., 51(2): 67-79. Krupke C. H., Hunt G. J., Eitzer B. D., Andino G., Given K. (2012) - Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields. PLoS ONE , 7(1): e29268. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0029268. Laurino D., Porporato M, Patetta A

observation of processes and the level of inter-process resources Roser et al. (2014) Flow Constraint Analysis takt time and the resource cycle time comparison Sims and Wan (2017) C/T Corrected cycle time and the degree of utilisation of each process measurement Urban (2019) The Process Time method focuses on the measurement of the material flow time in processes. This approach indicates the maximum efficiency of a process in the tested conditions ( Roser et al., 2014 ). The Average Active Period and Active Period methods focus on the time when a machine is active

function for the case that the fastener reaches the ultimate limit state of the load capacity, the fastening system could be taken to a higher degree of utilisation as a result. Another advantage would be that the fastening system only needs to be dimensioned once and the data could be retrieved for new applications, thus avoiding redundant work. 5 Investigation of data usage in a BIM model The support of a BIM model in the design process of fastening systems offers the user, respectively the engineer, the advantage of an automated and real-time-based evaluation of the

computerization of a hospital (CL) is determined by three items ( Table 1 ). Using a five-point scale ranging since “1” (poor) until “5” (excellent), respondents have been asked to assess the level of these three components of hospital computerization. Table 1 The list of observable variables and constructs in the research model ( Source: Author's own elaboration: Kludacz-Alessandri, 2017b ) Observable variables Constructs Degree of utilization of IT technologies in administrative part of a hospital Level of computerization in a hospital (CL) Degree of utilization of IT