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References Barro, R.J. 1999. Notes on Optimal Debt Management. Journal of Applied Economics 2(2), pp. 281-289. Carracedo, M.F., and Dattels Peter, 1997. Survey of Public Debt Management Frameworks in Selected Countries. In Sundararajan V., P. Dattels, H.J. Blommestein H.J. (ed.). Coordinating Public Debt and Monetary Management . Washington D.C.: International Monetary Fund: 96-162. Cassard, M., and D. Folkerts-Landau. 1997. Risk Management of Sovereign Assets and Liabilities. IMF Working Paper No. 166 . Wachington D.C.: International Monetary Fund. Dolenc, P

6. References Abid Hameed, Hammad Ashraf and Muhammed Ali Chaudhary (2008). Eternal Debt and its Impact on Economic Business Growth, International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, Issue 20. Asif Idrees Agha and Muhammad Saleem (2006). An Empirical Analysis of Fiscal Imbalances and Inflation in Pakistan, State Bank Research Bulletin vol. 4 NO.2, 2006 . Cunningham, R.T. (1993). The Effects of Debt Burden on Economic Growth in Heavily Indebted Nations, Journal of Economic Development, Vol. 18 No. 1. Dickey, D.A & Fuller, W.A. (1979) Distribution of

References [1] D. Bakšys and L. Sakalauskas, Modelling, simulation and optimisation of interbank settlements, Information technology and control 36 , 1 (2007) 43–52. ⇒143 [2] D. Bakšys and L. Sakalauskas, Simulation and testing of FIFO clearing algorithms, Information technology and control 39 , 1 (2010) 24–31. ⇒143 [3] L. Davis, Applying adaptive algorithms to epistatic domains, Proceedings of the 9th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence , 162–164, Morgan Kaufmann, 1985. ⇒148 [4] V. Gazda, Mutual debts compensation as graph theory

References 1. Africa Development Indicators. (1992). United Nations Development Programme, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. Washington, D.C. April 1992. 2. Africa Development Indicators. (2001). United Nations Development Programme, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. Washington, D.C. February 2001. 3. African Forum and Network on Debt and Development (AFRODAD). (2013). “Loan Contraction and Debt Management in Ghana.” Retrieved from https://afrodad.files.wordpress.com/2015/03/loan-contraction-and-debt

References Abbas A.S.M., Christensen J.E. (2007) The role of domestic debt markets in economic growth: An empirical investigation for low-income countries and emerging markets, IMF Working Paper 07/127, Washington DC, International Monetary Fund Afxentiou P.C. (1993) GNP growth and foreign indebtedness in middle-income developing countries, International Economic Journal, 7 (3), 81-92 Amoateng K., Amoako-Adu B. (1996) Economic growth, export and external debt causality: The case of African countries, Applied Economics, 28 (1), 21-27 Balcilar M. (2012) The

References External Debt Definition, Statistical Coverage and Methodology (1992). OECD Publications, Paris. External Debt: Definition, Statistical Coverage and Methodology (1998). BIS, IMF, World Bank, Paris. Gospodarka i handel zagraniczny Polski w 2008 roku i w 2009 roku (2009 and 2010). IBR KiK, Warszawa. Knap, R., Nakonieczna-Kisiel, H., W kwestii nierównowagi zewnętrznej Polski , Finanse, Rynki Finansowe, Ubezpieczenia, Uniwersytet Szczeciński (in press). Kulig, J. (2007), Ewolucja zadłużenia zagranicznego Polski w okresie transformacji, w perspektywie

References Adedoyin, L.I., Babalola, B.M., Otekinri, A.O., & Adeoti, J.O. (2016). External debt and economic growth: Evidence from Nigeria. Acta Universitatis Danubius Economica, 12 (6), 179-194. Afolabi, B., Laoye, A., Kolade, A.R., & Enaholo, J. (2017). The nexus between external debt and economic growth in Nigeria. British Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences, 14 (1), 1-17. Ajayi, L.B., & Oke, M.O. (2012). Effect of external debt on economic growth and development of Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3 (12), 297

References Bank of Greece (2009), Challenges and Prospects of SEE Economies in the wake of the Financial Crisis , Conference jointly organised by the Bank of Greece and the University of Oxford (SEESOX), Athens, 16 October. Barro, R. J. (1979), ‘On the Determination of Public Debt’, Journal of Political Economy , 87, 940-971. Bartolini, L. and A. Lahiri (2006), ‘Twin Deficits: Twenty Years Later’, Current Issues in Economics and Finance , Federal Reserve Bank of New York, 12, 7, October. Blanchard, O. J., J. C. Chouraqui, R. P. Hagamann and N. Sartos (1990

References 1. Abubakar, A., Astuti, R.I., & Oktapiani, R. (2018). Selection of Early Warning Indicator to Identify Distress In The Corporate Sector: Crisis Prevention Strengthening Efforts. Bulletin of Monetary Economics and Banking , 20, 343-372. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.21098/bemp.v20i3.857 2. Akbar, R. (2018). Understanding Indonesia’s External Debt Crisis: A Penalized Logistic Regression Approach. Conference Paper. Retrieved from https://editorialexpress.com/cgi-bin/conference/download.cgi?db_name=ACE2015&paper_id=74 3. Anwar, S., Ali, A., (2018

References 1. African Development Bank. (2005). African Economic Outlook. African Development Bank. Addis Abba, Ethiopia. 2. African Development Bank. (2012a). African Statistical Year Book. African Development Bank. Addis Abba, Ethiopia. 3. African Development Bank. (2012b). Zimbabwe: Country profile. African Development Bank. Addis Abba, Ethiopia. 4. African Forum and Network on Debt and Development. (2011-2012). Country Debt Profiles: Zimbabwe. Harare: AFRODAD. 5. Ajayi, S.I. (1997). Analysis of external debt and capital flight in the severely indebted low