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References 1. Bartolome J.A, Archbald L.F, Morresey P, Hernandez J, Tran T, Kelbert D.: Comparison of synchronization of ovulation and induction of estrus as therapeutic strategies for bovine ovarian cysts in the dairy cow. Theriogenology 2000, 53, 815-825. 2. Bartolome J.A, Sozzi A, McHale J, Melendez P, Arteche A.C.M, Silvestre F.T, Kelbert D, Swift K, Archbald L.F, Thatcher W.W.: Resynchronization of ovulation and timed insemination in lactating dairy cows, II: assigning protocols according to stages of the estrous cycle, or presence of ovarian cysts or

References Abuelo A., Gandy J.C., Neuder L., Brester J., Sordillo L.M. (2016). Short communication: Markers of oxidant status and inflammation relative to the development of claw lesions associated with lameness in early lactation cows. J. Dairy Sci., 99: 5640–5648. Alsaaod M., Büscher W. (2012). Detection of hoof lesions using digital infrared thermography in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 95: 735–742. Alsaaod M., Syring C., Dietrich J., Doherr M.G., Gujan T., Steiner A. (2013). A field trial of infrared thermography as non-invasive diagnostic tool for early

REFERENCES 1. Archer, S., Bell, N., Huxley, J., 2010: Lameness in UK dairy cows: a review of the current status. In Practice , 32, 492—504. 2. Barker, Z. E., Leach, K. A., Whay, H. R., Bell, N. J., Main, D. C. J., 2010: Assessment of lameness prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy herds in England and Wales. J. Dairy Sci. , 93, 932—941. 3. Bergsten, C., Herlin, A. H., 1996: Sole haemorrhages and heel horn erosion in dairy cows: The influence of housing system on their prevalence and severity. Acta Vet. Scand. , 37, 395—408. 4. Cook, N. B., 2003

T.B. Mephan, Elsevier Science Publisher, Amsterdam, 1983, pp. 437–468. 4. Beck-Nielsen H., Kuhl C., Pedersen O., Bjerre Christensen C., Nielsen T.T., Klebe J.G.: Decreased insulin binding to monocytes from normal pregnant women. J Clin Endocrinol 1979, 49, 810–814. 5. Bobe G., Young J.W., Beitz D.C.: Pathology, etiology, prevention, and treatment of fatty liver in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2004, 87, 3105–3124. 6. Calamari L., Soriani N., Panella G., Petrera F., Minuti A., Trevisi E.: Rumination time around calving: an early signal to detect cows at greater risk of

References 1. Ashfaq, K., Muhammad, G., 2008: Pathogens Associated with Bovine and Bubaline Mastitis in Peri-Urban Areas of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pak. J. Life Soc. Sci. , 6, 86—88. 2. Blowey, R., Edmondson, P., 2010: Mastitis Control in Dairy Herds . 2nd edn., FSC, London, 259 pp. 3. Crowe, M. A., Hostens, M., Opsomer, G., 2018: Reproductive management in dairy cows ‒ the future. Irish Veterinary Journal , 71, 1. DOI: 10.1186/s13620-017-0112-y. 4. Edwards, S., Rossi, M., Henney, G., 2019: The Anatomy and Physiology of Reproduction—Cattle . Available on

Sci. , 84, 1201—1209. 12. Solano, L., Barkema, H. W., Pickel, C., Orsel, K., 2017: Effectiveness of a standardized footbath protocol for prevention of digital dermatitis. J. Dairy Sci. , 100, 1295—1307. 13. Solano, L., Barkema, H. W., Pajor, E. A., Mason, S., Leblanc, S. J., Nash, C. G., et al., 2016: Associations between lying behaviour and lameness in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns. J. Dairy Sci. , 99, 2086—2101. 14. Van Amstel, S. R., Shearer, J. K., 2006: Review of Pododermatitis circumscripta (ulceration of the sole) in dairy

lymphoma and preliminary results of tandem mass fingerprinting analysis. Vet Clin Pathol 2011, 40:159-173. 5. Tappin SW, Taylor SS, Tasker S, Dodkin SJ, Papasouliotis K, Murphy KF: Serum protein electrophoresis in 147 dogs. Vet Rec 2011, 168:456. 6. Warnick LD, Janssen D, Guard CL, Grohn YT: The effect of lameness on milk production in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2001, 84:1988-1997. 7. Lee JI, Kim IH: Pregnancy loss in dairy cows: the contributing factors, the effect on reproductive performance and the economic impact. J Vet Sci 2007, 8:283-288. 8. Smith BI, Kauffold J

Introduction Lameness is a debilitating condition that affects dairy cow health, behaviour, and welfare ( 26 ), decreases milk production and fertility, and increases treatment costs and premature culling. Although its aetiology is not fully understood, it is well known that lameness is a multifactorial condition with potential causes such as trauma, metabolic disorders, and infections ( 4 , 34 ). In terms of duration and evolution, lameness can be considered a chronic condition inducing a decrease in the nociceptive threshold (hyperalgesia) of the affected limb

. Medycyna Wetery- naryjna, 56, 759-763. 5. Malinowski, E., Gajewski, Z., 2009: Characteristics of cows mastitis caused by human foodborne pathogens. Życie Weterynaryjne, 84, 290-294. 6. Malinowski, E., Lassa, H., Kłossowska, A., Smulski, S., Markiewicz, H., Kaczmarowski, M., 2006: Etiological agents of dairy cows’ mastitis in western part of Poland. Pol. J. Vet. Sci., 9, 191-194. 7. McDougall, S., 2003: Intramammary treatment of clinical mastitis of dairy cows with a combination of lincomycin and neomycin, or penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin. N. Z. Vet. J., 51, 111

References 1. Andersson L.: Subclinical ketosis in dairy cows. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1988, 4, 233–251. 2. Annison E.F., Bryden W.L.: Perspectives on ruminant nutrition and metabolism I. Metabolism in the rumen. Nutr Res Rev 1998, 11, 173–198. 3. Azam S., Jouvet N., Jilani A., Vongsamphanh R., Yang X., Yang S., Ramotar D.: Human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase plays a direct role in reactivating oxidized forms of the DNA repair enzyme APE1. J Biol Chem 2008, 283, 30632–30641. 4. Backlund M., Paukku K., Daviet L., De Boer R.A., Valo E