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REFERENCES 1. Renaudeau, D., Collin, A., Yahav, S., de Basilio, V., Gourdine, J. L., Collier, R. J. (2012). Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production. Animal 6, 707-728. PMid:22558920 2. Kadzere, C.T., Murphy, M.R., Silanikove, N., Maltz, E. (2002). Heat stress in lactating dairy cows: a review. Livest Prod Sci. 77, 59-91. 3. Wheelock, J.B., Rhoads, R.P., Van Baale, M.J., Sanders, S.R., Baumgard, L.H. (2010). Effects of

References 1. Adams L.A., Lindor K.D.: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Ann Epidemiol 2007, 17, 863–869. 2. Aviram M., Rosenblat M.: Paraoxonases 1, 2, and 3, oxidative stress, and macrophage foam cell formation during atherosclerosis development. Free Radic Biol Med 2004, 37, 1304–1316. 3. Baird G.D.: Primary ketosis in the high-producing dairy cow: clinical and subclinical disorders, treatment, prevention, and outlook. J Dairy Sci 1982, 65, 1–10. 4. Bouwstra R.J., Goselink R.M.A., Dobbelaar P., Nielen M., Newbold J.R., Werven V.T.: The relationship between

References 1. Contreras GA, Sordillo LM: Lipid mobilization and inflammatory responses during the transition period of dairy cows. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2011; 34: 281-289. 2. Morgante M, Gianesella M, Casella S, Stelletta C, Cannizzo C, Giudice E, Piccione G: Response to glucose infusion in pregnant and nonpregnant ewes: changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Comp Clin Path 2012; 21: 961-965. 3. Fiore E, Piccione G, Perillo L, Barberio A, Manuali E, Morgante M, Gianesella M: Hepatic lipidosis in high-yielding dairy cows during the

References Behrouzi A., López-Helguera I., Mapletoft R.J., Ambrose D.J, Colazo M.G. (2016). Plasma progesterone concentration at TAI in dairy cows: what is low enough? Proceedings of the 18th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, 26–30 June 2016, Tours, France. Brusveen D.J., Souza A.H., Wiltbank MC. (2009). Effects of additional prostaglandin F2α and estradiol-17β during Ovsynch in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 92: 1412–1422. Carvalho P.D., Fuenzalida M.J., Ricci A., Souza A.H., Barletta R.V., Wiltbank M.C., Fricke P.M. (2015). Modifications to

References Bicalho R.C., Oikonomou G. (2013). Control and prevention of lameness associated with claw lesions in dairy cows. Livest. Sci., 156: 96–105. Bicalho R.C., Cheong S.H., Cramer G., Guard C.L. (2007). Association between a visual and an automated locomotion score in lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci., 90: 3294–3300. Brzozowska A., Łukaszewicz M., Sender G., Kolasińska D., Oprządek J. (2014). Locomotor activity of dairy cows in relation to season and lactation. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 156: 6–11. Chesterton R.N., Lawrence K.E., Laven R.A. (2008). A

circulating hormones and ovarian follicle development in cattle. Anim. Repro. Sci. 78, 345-370. PMid:12818653 7. Dovenski T., Kocoski, Lj., Trojacanec, P., Popovski, K., Mickovski, G., Petkov, V., Veselinovic, S., Ivkov, V., Ivancev, N., Ickov, R., Mickov, Lj. (2000). Ultrasound diagnosis of functional ovarian disorders in dairy cows and its adequate treatment. Proceedings Symposium on veterinary clinical pathology and therapy “Clinica Veterinaria”, 35-50. Budva (in Serbian). 8. Drackley, J. K., Dann, H. M., Douglas, G. N

References Breuer K., Hems worth PH., Barnett J.L., Matthews L.R., Coleman G.J. (2000). Behavioural response to humans and the productivity of commercial dairy cows. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 66: 273-288. Bruckmaier R.M. (2005). Normal and disturbed milk ejection m dairycows. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol., 29: 268-273. Buchenauer D. (1999). Genetics of Behaviour in Cattle. In: The Genetics of Cattle, Fries R. Ruvinsky A. (eds). CAB International. Wallingford. United Kingdom, pp. 365-390. Budzyńska B., Ceglińska A., Kamieniak J., Krupa W., Sapu la M. (2005

, Martineau F, Ménard C, Roy PH, Ouellette M, Bergeron MGÇ: Development of a PCR assay for rapid detection of Enterococci. J Clin Microbiol, 37, 3497-3503, 1999. 22. Sevinti DA, Sahin M: Determining of ß-lactamase activity and resistance against some antibiotics of Staphylococcus strains isolated from bovine mastitis. Vet Bil Derg, 25, 23-28, 2009. 23. Macun HC, Yagcı IP, Unal N, Kalender H, Sakarya F, Yildirim M: Agent isolation and antibiotic resistance in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in Kırıkkale. J Fac Vet Med Univ Erciyes, 8(2): 83-89, 2011. 24. Yesilmen S

Introduction Ketosis is a significant metabolic disease in dairy cows during transition periods. The incidence of ketosis can range from 10% to 60% for subclinical cases and 2% to 15% for clinical cases in the first month of lactation ( 10 ). Essentially, all dairy cows experience a negative energy balance (NEB) during early lactation due to the energy intake failing to meet the requirements of milk production ( 3 , 29 ). An excessive NEB usually leads to ketosis, which can result in decreased milk production, rapid weight loss, dry faeces, less rumination ( 11

References Akbar H., Grala T.M., Vailati Riboni M., Cardoso F.C., Verkerk G., Mc Gowa n J., Macdonald K., Webster J., Schutz K., Meier S., Matthews L., Roche J.R., Loor J.J. (2015). Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 98: 1019-1032. Busato A., Faissle D., Kupfer U., Blum J.W. (2002). Body condition scores in dairy cows: associations with metabolic and endocrine changes in healthy dairy cows. J. Vet. Med. A Physiol. Pathol. Clin. Med., 49