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Biomonitoring of Inland and Inshore Waters with Use of Dreissena Polymorpha Mussels


The pollution of water that is used for consumption and in agricultural holdings contributes to an increased mortality rate, inhibition of growth and physiological functions, changes in the DNA (genotoxicity), changes within tissues (cytotoxicity) and organs of individuals who are exposed to chemical components. One of the most dangerous toxin classes which have effect on animals and humans who come into contact with contaminated water is the class of cyanobacterial toxins released by dying cyanobacteria. They contribute to very serious health conditions and also to fatalities. Toxins of this type are relatively difficult to detect on account of their seasonal changeability in blooming. One of the most effective methods of detecting water contamination automatically and continuously is biomonitoring with the use of Dreissena polymorpha mussels.

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Methods for Cyanotoxins detection

matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. - Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67(11): 5069-5076. Figueiredo D. R., Azeiteiro U. M., Esteves S. M., Gonçalves F. J. M., Pereira M. J., 2004: Microcystin-producing blooms - a serious global public health issue. - Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 59: 151-163. Hedman C. J., Krick W. R., Karner Perkins D. A., Harrahy E. A., Sonzogni W. C., 2008: New measurements of cyanobacterial toxins in natural waters using High Perfomance Liquid Chromatography

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Toxins produced in cyanobacterial water blooms - toxicity and risks

, growth and ecology. Phycologia   43 : 26-40. Bláhová L, Babica P, Adamovský O, Kohoutek J, Maršálek B, and Bláha L. (2008) Analyses of cyanobacterial toxins (microcystins, cylindrospermopsin) in the reservoirs of the Czech Republic and evaluation of health risks. Environ Chem Lett   6 : 223-227. Bláhová L, Babica P, Maršálková E, Smutná M, Maršálek B, and Bláha L. (2007) Concentrations and seasonal trends of extracellular microcystins in freshwaters of the Czech Republic - results of the national monitoring program

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Mechanism and Effects of Cyanobacterial Hepatotoxin Action on Human Organism

. Morfologi-cal, genetic, chemical and ecophysiological characterisation of two Mi-crocystis aeruginosa isolates from the Vistula Lagoon, southern Baltic. Oceanol. 2010;52:127-56. 5. Rogalska-Kupiec M, Bochnia T. Toksyny syntetyzowane przez sinice. Wiad Bot. 1998;42:11-9. 6. Codd G, Morrison LF, Metcalf JS. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection. Toxicol. Appl Pharmacol. 2005;203:264-72. 7. Del Campo FF, Ouahid Y. Identyfication of microcystins from three col-lectoin strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. Environ Poll. 2010;158:2906-14. 8

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Human Exposure to Cyanotoxins and their Effects on Health

, Dietrich DR. Occurrence and elimination of cyanobacterial toxins in two Australian drinking water treatment plants. Toxicon 2004;43:639-49. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2004.02.019 19. Hoeger SJ, Hitzfeld BC, Dietrich DR. Occurrence and elimination of cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water treatment plants. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2005;203:231-42. 20. Svirčev Z, Baltić V, Gantar M, Juković M, Stojanović D, Baltić M. Molecular Aspects of microcystin-induced hepatotoxicity and hepatocarcinogenesis. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog

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Variations of microcystins in freshwater ecosystems

. - London. Codd G.A., Bell S.G., Kaya K., Ward C.J., Beattie K.A., Metcalf J.S., 1999: Cyanobacterial toxins, exposure routes and human health. - European Journal of Phycology, 34: 405-415. Davis T.W., Berry D.L., Boyer G.L., Gobler C.J., 2009: The effects of temperature and nutrients on the growth and dynamics of toxic and nontoxic strains of Microcystis during cyanobacteria blooms. - Harmful Algae, 8: 715-725. Dittmann E., Erhard M., Kaebernick M., Scheler C., Neilan B.A., Döhren H. Von, Borner T., 2001: Altered expression

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Cyanobacterial blooms in kaliski region water reservoirs and water quality parameters / Zakwity sinicowe w zbiornikach okolic Kalisza a wskaźniki jakości wody

, Toxicon, 35, pp. 963-971. [9] Kabziński, A., Grabowska, H., Cyran, J., Juszczak, R., Dziegieć, J., Zawadzka, A., Szczukocki, D. & Szczytowski, K. (2004). Experiments with application of chlorine dioxide and ozone for removing cyanobacterial toxins from Sulejów-Łódź water pipe system, Archives of Environmental Protection, 30, 2, pp. 17-38. (in Polish) [10] Kabziński, A.K.M., Grabowska, H., Cyran, J., Juszczak, R., Zawadzka, A. & Macioszek, B. (2004). Effect of water quality and treatment parameters on the extent of cyanobacterial toxins

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Subchronic exposure of rats to sublethal dose of microcystin-YR induces DNA damage in multiple organs

References McElhiney J, Lawton LA. Detection of the cyano-bacterial hepatotoxins microcystins. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2005; 203 : 219-30. Dawson RM. Toxicology of microcystins. Toxicon 1998; 7 : 953-62. Sedmak B, Kosi, G. Microcystins in Slovene fresh-waters (Central Europe): first report. Nat Toxins 1997; 5 : 64-73. Codd GA, Bell SG, Kaya K, Ward CJ, Beattie KA, Metcalf JS. Cyanobacterial toxins, exposure routes and human health. Eur J Physiol

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Ecotoxicologically relevant cyclic peptides from cyanobacterial bloom (Planktothrix rubescens) - a threat to human and environmental health

Y, Vardi A, Sukenik A, Carmeli S, Börner T, et al. Towards clarification of the biological role of microcystins, a family of cyanobacterial toxins. Environm Microbiol 2007; 9: 965-70. Sedmak B, Kosi G. The role of microcystins in heavy cyanobacterial bloom formation. J Plankton Res 1998; 20: 691-708; 1998; 20: 1421. Sedmak B, Kosi G. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms in Slovenia - Bloom types and microcystin producers. Acta Biol Slovenica 2002; 45: 17-30. Grach-Pogrebinsky O, Sedmak B

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Response of Freshwater Bloom-Forming Planktonic Cyanobacteria to Global Warming and Nutrient Increase

, 46: 1394-1407. Castro D., Vera D., Lagos N., Garcia C., Vásquez M., 2004: The effect of temperature on growth and production of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins by the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii C10. - Toxicon, 44: 483-489. Cerasino L., Salmaso N., 2012: Diversity and distribution of cyanobacterial toxins in the Italian subalpine lacustrine district. - International Journal of Oceanography and Hydrobiology, 41(3): 54-63. Chan F., Pace M.L., Howarth R.W., Marino R.M., 2004: Bloom formation in

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