This paper presents the definition of cultural marketing services phenomena, trying to identify new ways to interact and gain insight in consumer preference and behavior. The existence of Big Data and Internet of Things can be used in the Cultural Services sector. Traditional marketing and digital marketing can be reunited with the help of Big Data trends and analytics to better connect with target audience. Big Data can be used to analyze and discover new patterns in social trends and uncover customer preference. There are digital ways in which now consumers interact with their favorite cultural service and these are mostly, by internet. This new level of interaction live with your favorite cultural service, band or artist, even with other services like museums or conferences, where a human voice exists, can make the difference between returning or not to a certain service. Customizing the experience for each customer gives way to improving the overall marketing mix and improve profits. Big Data can help at improving this experience and create a better hypothesis for future strategies used in new cultural events. The main objective of marketing cultural services is to offer the client a unique selling proposition that can’t be refused. Using the internet, they leave a digital footprint with every action they make in regard with a certain services: they engage via social networks or check in via GPS. These are just a few examples of raw data that can be collected and used to exemplify future possibilities and predict where people will be in relation with a certain cultural call to action. This information, with consumer behavior studies, motivations, drives and other characteristics (age, sex, income, social position) can determine the best marketing approach for a certain event or communication in order to achieve maximum return on investment.
line with citizens’ preferences. I analysed the preference-matching using the information about the structure of local society. The median voter model suggests that when there are more citizens in a municipality that demand culturalservices more, the spending on culture is higher. The second group of variables defines the financial condition of the municipality. The revenues of the municipality and also the fiscal imbalance indicator are included in this group. This indicator represents the differences in the real elasticity of local fiscal policy. The third group
Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education”, 1(2), pp. 3–13.
Sizoo S., Iskat W., Plank R., Serrie H. (2003), Cross-CulturalService Encounters in the Hospitality Industry and the Effect of Intercultural Sensitivity on Employee Performance , “International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration”, 4(2), pp. 61–77.
Sizoo S., Serrie H., Shapero M. (2010), Succeeding in the global marketplace: A practical approach to developing the Cross-cultural skills of tourism & hospitality students , “Journal of Tourism”, XI (2), pp. 1–18.
Steiner C. J
Ecosystem services (ES) (goods and services) represent the outputs of natural systems from which people can have benefits. Evaluation of the benefits resulting from ES of inland waters or the benefits, which are lost when the necessary measures are not implemented, is one of the methods of evaluating the external costs of environmental damage - environmental and resource costs. Evaluation of ES is based on the CICES classification v. 4.3, which defines provision, regulation/ maintenance and cultural services. In the assessment of ES also enters groundwater, although in comparison with surface waters in lesser extent. At present, the evaluation is performed at the level of sub-basins of the Slovak Republic. In this paper, evaluation of selected ES is presented. Use of evaluation in practice is also discussed.
Agricultural and industrial conditions are not favourable in the uphill and mountain areas of the Zamagurie region, and tourism is often the only opportunity to create new jobs, develop the habitation areas and avoid the emigration of local inhabitants. The Walachian and Sholtys colonization has transformed the landscape and created unique significant spatial landscape elements that are traditionally utilized for agricultural purposes, and create a unique esthetical landscape preserved till the present times. This case study has been aimed at developing and applying the new quantification methods using GIS tools for evaluation of localizing, selective realization and environmental preconditions of the landscape, representing recreational (cultural) services of the landscape ecological systems, based on selected indicators. To evaluate the localizing preconditions of the landscape, we referred to the landscape-ecological complex geo-databases (LEC) (Thematic maps - internal ground document of ZB GIS , 2013), completed with the field survey during the period 2013−2014 and identification of secondary landscape structure elements (SLS) and selected morphometric indicators. While evaluating the selected town-planning, demographical and social-economic indicators, we quantified the selective landscape preconditions of tourism development. The realization preconditions were reviewed according to communication accessibility and material-technical equipment. As for environmental preconditions, we reviewed the presence of protected territory and landscape environmental load.
The Geo-Demographic Dimension of Romanian Rural Space
Knowing, researching into and developing the rural space are activities of utmost importance for a country, both by the dimension of the rural space, expressed by the surface as such, and by the dimension of the demographic component (of the rural population). Referring to Romanian rural space, this is dominant, representing almost 94% of Romania's total surface (93.7%). In what concerns the demographic component (population), as it is known, this confers a particular dynamics to the rural space, generating a series of quantitative and qualitative aspects. At present the share of the rural population reaches 47% out of the total of Romania's population. Generally speaking, we can assert that the village and generally the Romanian village remains further on the main propeller of life. Thus the share of the rural population, besides the whole range of socio-demographic indicators, which can outline the degree of stability or instability of the rural space, as well as other basic indicators, such as the share of the rural population occupied in productive activities, socio-cultural services, tourism activities, etc., enhance the importance of the rural life from one country or another, reason for which the development of the rural space remains a problem of a national and international level. Consequently, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has raised the issue of the rural space at the level of European and Community policy.
The provision of public goods is an important aspect of public sector management, and it is a subject of specific conditions. Public Goods should be provided efficiently and in accordance to consumer demand and should meet the provider's political and financial priorities as well as other obligatory commitments. An important role also play the citizens that are increasingly appealing on the provision of high-quality, accessible and cost-effective public goods in line with the principle of “value for money”. The evaluation of the provided public goods is, therefore, a topical issue. A particular case would be the provision of mixed public goods. This article deals with the topic of evaluation of mixed public goods provided in the cultural sector, specifically in the field of theatres. The basis of the economic value of cultural goods (products) and services is their rarity and utility value. Major difficulties are associated with the evaluation of freely available cultural goods or cultural services provided for non-equivalent admissions. Cultural goods often are of a high spiritual value in the eyes of the public, but, at the same time, their financial value is low. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the level of mixed public goods provided by Czech professional theatres from the perspective of technical and financial availability to citizens. For the assessment of the level of provided cultural goods, the multi-criteria evaluation method WSA is used. In terms of technical and financial aspects, the results of the research demonstrate a great variability across organizations associated in the Professional Theatres Association. The organizations are ranked according to the level of provided mixed public goods from best to worst.
Industrial Heritage Tourism: a Regional Perspective (Warsaw)
When touring a region, one of the things previous generations certainly overlooked were the industrial areas. With the exception of the old saltmine "Wieliczka" in the south of Poland, industrial heritage was mainly unknown. Industrial landscape (mills, factories with chimneys emitting all-blackening smoke, poverty-stricken workers' houses) have been regarded with dislike and considered grim.
Using the example of Warsaw's industrial heritage revitalization projects, we examined already modernized historic buildings, which sought to respond to tourist and leisure needs (museums, art galleries, cultural centres). We were interested in their new functions and meanings for urban space quality. We wanted to consider how much revitalized architecture help to change (socially, culturally, economically) declining areas and their painful "inner-city" image (Thorns 2001). Our research (carried out in 2005-2006) covered nine historic industrial compounds, already converted and having new functions. Results of our inquiry polls (taken in 2005-2006) confirmed the thesis, that revitalized historic industrial architecture might enrich urban space with values visible in many dimensions: social, historical, aesthetical and economic (Evans 2005). Although selected and studied cases in Warsaw were not completed equally successfully, due to the objective barriers or carelessness in the planning process, all show good results in space quality and cultural services improvement, appreciated by the local community members and visitors relevantly.
Once neglected run-down Warsaw districts (Wola, Praga) now draw benefits from new identities, attracting tourists and enhancing the local community's sense of belonging and well-being. Similar cases were described by scholars after studies in other European cities (Jones 2006).
Management by objectives (known also as performance management) has been perceived as a promising steering method in the public sector since the beginning of the 1990s (Smith 1993, 1995; Kravchuk and Schack 1996; Ballantine et al. 1998; Ferreira and Otley 2009Verbeeten 2008). However, working out operative goals of public organizations seem to be a challenge because major objectives formulated by politicians are oft en unclear and difficult to measure (Rombach 1991; Lundquist 1992; Gray and Jenkins 1995; Lapsley 1999). It is known that public organizations’ services like school, health care, welfare care, collective transportation, infrastructure and cultural services are usually unprofitable. The Transportation Service for the Disabled in the Municipality of Gothenburg is an exception. It fulfilled most objectives and achieved a profit of 7,890,000 SEK for 2013, while the planned one was scheduled at 5,000,000 SEK. Maybe performance management used as the steering model caused that result but the criticism targeting management by objectives suggests that this method hardly can explain such a positive result. Brorström et al. (2005) and Grönlund and Modell (2006) argue that in Sweden management by objectives is usually used in combination with other control models. The purpose of this study is to describe and explain why the Transportation Service for the Disabled succeeded in 2013 and to provide practitioners nationally and internationally with some pragmatic ideas how to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public services. We ask three sub-questions: How were the operative goals created within the Transportation Service for the Disabled? How were the operative goals followed up? What can be learned from this case study? The research is based on the analysis of state regulations, internal policy documents, reports and interviews with key respondents. The study shows that the performance management systems (PMS) in combination with a new organizational culture based on SMART solutions, mutual cooperation among staff, with local politicians and other stakeholders resulted in the increase of efficiency and even partly effectiveness. However, these findings deserve further research if there are other public administrations that succeeded because of using PMS and friendly organizational culture.