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, Lamoureaux, S.A. 2011. Voices from the Field: Identity, Language and Power in Multilingual Research Settings in Journal of Language, Identity and Education , Vol. 10. Issue 3. Guest, Michael. 2002. A Critical “Checkbook” for Culture Teaching and Learning in ELT Journal. vol 2/2 April. Hall, Stuart. 1996. The Question of Cultural Identity in Modernity. An Introduction to Modern Societies . edited by Hall, S., Held., D., Hubert, D., Thompson, K. Blackwell Publishers. Kanno, Yasuko. 2003. Imagined Communities, School Visions, and the Education of Bilingual Students

. Karabenick, & H. M. G. Watt (Eds.), Teacher motivation: Theory and practice (pp. 20–35). New York: Routledge. Chen, Y., & Lin, H. (2016, July). Cultural identities. Oxford Research Encyclopedia, Communication. Retrieved 6 September, 2018, from . Collier, M. J., & Thomas, M. (1988). Identity in intercultural communication: An interpretive perspective. In Y. Y. Kim & W. B. Gudykunst (Eds.), Theories of intercultural communication, International and Intercultural

1 Introduction Living in a new era of mass migration, economic reasons for migration decisions are strongly emphasized. However, as the social problems in the U.S., as well as in Europe, demonstrate, migration is not only an economic issue, but also a social and a cultural one. There is a very large body of research concerning economic and social migration problems in economics and sociology, but there exists hardly any literature concerning the economic relevance of immigration and cultural identity. Since the seminal paper of Akerlof and Kranton (2000


Universal human rights and particular cultural identities, which are relativistic by nature, seem to stand in conflict with each other. It is commonly suggested that the relativistic natures of cultural identities undermine universal human rights and that human rights might compromise particular cultural identities in a globalised world. This article examines this supposed clash and suggests that it is possible to frame a human rights approach in such a way that it becomes the starting point and constraining framework for all non-deficient cultural identities. In other words, it is possible to depict human rights in a culturally sensitive way so that universal human rights can meet the demands of a moderate version of meta-ethical relativism which acknowledges a small universal core of objectively true or false moral statements and avers that, beyond that small core, all other moral statements are neither objectively true nor false.


After the decisive historical moment of December 1989, the “border” is open for Transylvanian Hungarians and, in the subsequent euphoria, an exodus to the mother country commences. But with the political freedom of crossing national borders, due to globalization (too), new kinds of border problems present themselves for the youth leaving their native land: border issues of small versus large community, of interpersonal relations; the gap between generations; borders between majority versus minority identity and national versus cultural identity as well. This paper is a literary analysis with special focus on contemporary social phenomena, which will examine - through discussing a relevant contemporary Székely-Hungarian novel - how cultural identity can be deformed, damaged, or at least temporarily distorted when a Hungarian from beyond the border, who arrives in mother-country Hungary, will have to redefine herself/himself within a culture which, in this case, is basically one and the same.1 Can the identity-code, which was formed by, and grew strong in, the minority existence of the native land, function when s/he enters a cultural vacuum which turns out or can turn out to be another cultural maze for her or him? Can we talk about assimilation in such cases? What happens when a “rebellious” young individual’s “I” identity, unsteady in the first place, is left without the conserving and protective “We” identity in the confrontation of mother-nation versus beyond-the-border cultures so that, eventually, the young woman’s “I” identity will be damaged by big-city underworld (sub)culture. Or, will cultural mimicry emerge in this situation too as a strategy to help the individual retain his/her identity? We will seek answers to these questions through discussing a novel - A szív hangjai [Sounds of the Heart] - by a fine representative of contemporary Székely-Hungarian literature, György Lőrincz.

Kollektiven Bewusstseins in Der Neuzeit, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp. Hall, J. (1992), ‘The Capital(s) of culture: A nonholistic approach to status situations, class, gender, and ethnicity,’ in M. Lamont & M. Fournier (eds.) Cultivating Differences: Symbolic Boundaries and the Making of Inequality, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 257–285. Hall, S. (1990), ‘Cultural identity and diaspora,’ in J. Rutherford (ed.) Identity, Community, Culture, Difference, London: Lawrence & Wishart, pp. 222–237. —— (1992), ‘The question of cultural identity,’ in S. Hall, D. Held & T

References [1] David Crystal, English as a Global Language , Cambridge, Publishing House,1997, p.7. [2] Stefan Viorel and M. Ghenea, Identitate europeana, diferență cultural și imaginar colectiv , City, Publishing House, p. 17. [3] Fred Jandt, An introduction to Intercultural communication , City, Publishing House, p. 245. [4] M. Fong, Identity and Speech Community, in Communicating Ethnic and Cultural identity (edited by M. Fong and R. Chuang, Lanham, MD, Rowman and Littlefield, 2004), p.6. [5] Stefan Viorel and M. Ghenea, Identitate europeana, diferență

Communication: An Analysis of Differing Academic Conceptions of Cultural Identity. [Electronic version]. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 36:3, 237-253. Retrieved from:>. Liu, S., Volčič, Z., & Gallois, C. (2011). Introducing Intercultural Communication: Global Cultures and Contexts. London: Sage. Samovar, L. A., & Porter, R. E. (2003). Understanding Intercultural Communication: An Introduction and Overview. In L. A. Samovar & R. E. Porter (Eds.), Intercultural Communication (10th Edition) (pp. 6

. Paper session presented at the Seventh International Conference on Language Teacher Education, Washington, DC. Feiman-Nemser, S., & Buchmann, M. (1985). Pitfalls of experience in teacher preparation. Teacher College Board, 87(1), 49–65. Fichtner, F., & Chapman, K. (2011). The cultural identities of foreign language teachers. L2 Journal, 3(1), 116–140. Gaudelli, W., & Ousley, D. (2009). From clothing to skin: Identity work of student teachers in culminating field experiences. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(6), 931–939. Gee, J. P. (2001). Identity as an analytic

References Benet-Martínez, V., Leu, J., Lee, F., & Morris, M. W. (2002). Negotiating biculturalism cultural frame switching in biculturals with oppositional versus compatible cultural identities. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33(5), 492-516. doi: 10.1177/0022022102033005005 Benet-Martínez, V., Lee, F., & Leu, J. (2006). Biculturalism and cognitive complexity expertise in cultural representations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37(4), 386-407. doi: 10.1177/0022022106288476 Bond, M. H. (1983). How language variation affects inter