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An analysis of cultural change and generation gaps in the local community of the Nungon ethnic group in the state of Papua New Guinea will be the subject of the study. This ethnic group came into contact with Europeans for the first time in the mid-1930s. The pace of cultural changes within the community has been gradually increasing. For example, the local animistic cult has been replaced with Christianity, school attendance has been introduced in the villages of Nungon, travel opportunities have become more accessible, and as the mobile signal has recently been introduced, Nungon residents can now connect to the internet and access information about the globalised world. Those who remember the colonial period still live in the community and many of them are still illiterate, with only limited knowledge of Pidgin English, the lingua franca of Papua New Guinea. On the other hand, the youngest generation can study in cities or experiment with social media and share information there. The aim of the paper is not only to show intergenerational differences, but also to document the local history and its ties to particular generations and show the role the generational memory played in illiterate societies with unwritten history. The only existing written and photographic documents were created by colonial officers. The study will show the transformation of the Nungon community from the time of photographs kept in boxes to the youngest generation, which keeps photographs in mobile phones and shares them on social media.

Abstract The author of this paper, interested in the issues of values preference, meaning in life and altruism among university students has attempted to show a relation between them in the present period of clearly noticeable socio-cultural change. The study was conducted in 2009-2010 in Kraków among university students. The age of the respondents ranged from 21 to 25. 200 sets of correctly completed questionnaires were used for the results analysis.

In order to show values preference among university students Rokeach’s Value Survey (RVS) was used. The level of a sense of meaning in life was measured by means of Crumbaugh and Maholick’s Purpose in Life Test (PLT). Moreover, Śliwak’s Questionnaire of Altruism (A-N) was applied to measure the level of altruism.

It was found that students with a high level of altruism are accompanied by a higher level of meaning in life than students with a low level thereof. Terminal values significantly correlate with meaning in life in groups of students with a high and low level of altruism. Among terminal values, values personal in character appear to be more strongly related to meaning in life than values social in character.


In order for the study of culture to be recognized as an autonomous subject, a profile of the discipline is necessary which clearly defines its purpose and its distinct, preferred goals, fields and topics. The suggestion is to establish the objectives based on three key issues: ‘What does it mean to act culturally?’, ‘What is cultural order?’ and ‘What determines cultural change?’ In the second half, I will present Hartmut Böhmes’ suggestion taking up preferred fields of cultural analytical work and supplement it with cultural sociology fields. The third part concerns a contemporary analytical profile of the study of culture, seen in society and cultural critique, especially in analysis of symbolic power.


The phenomenon of the social, economic, political, cultural, and spiritual activities of the Focolare Movement, implemented in the economy of communion businesses on the global scale for more than 20 years, inspired Biela to formulate the paradigm of unity concept to show its importance in the social sciences field (Biela 1996, 2005). The author of this research paper has expanded Biela’s concept on the basis of the new paradigm theoretical analysis in the social sciences field, particularly in management sciences, and has conducted an empirical investigation in 110 businesses of the economy of communion in 22 countries (Grochmal 2013).

The need of essential mental and cultural changes by the entrepreneurs (managers), as well by the employees, in the management processes is presented in this paper according to the paradigm of unity. The necessity of these changes results from the fundamental assumptions of this same paradigm: from the new holistic look on the management process and interpersonal relationships between shareholders and stakeholders; from the personalistic treatment of each participant in the economic process; and from the role human, relational, and spiritual capitals play in the modern management


The purpose of this thesis is to show how popculture works are expressions of the social narrative of historical, social and cultural changes that took place in Sweden in the 90s. This dissertation is based on Henning Mankell’s Wallander Cycle. This work will focus on the problem created after 1989, speciality the problem of immigration and issue of educational values fall.


Objective: The main purpose of the crowdfunding literature review was to find an answer to the following research questions: do scholars investigating related topics take into account the increasing importance of crowdfunding as a form of funding and resulting economic consequences for SMEs? Is the relevance of crowdfunding in reducing the funding gap taken into consideration? Do studies involve analyses of economic consequences associated with the development of crowdfunding for the banking sector? The research questions we have asked refer to the existing state of knowledge about the extent of crowdfunding-related studies underway. The validity of the subject is due to the fact that crowdfunding is a new form of raising capital in the Culturally-Changing Global Economy.

Methodology: Once we analysed the literature review methodologies, we decided on a stateof- the-art analysis since this method allows to establish the facts for the research and subsequently to propose a new perspective and new directions of research. Due to the necessity to select the right texts on crowdfunding, selection criteria in terms of quantity and quality were defined (scoping review). We reviewed the literature on crowdfunding published between 2010 and 2018 using the following databases: Ebscohost, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Scopus, and BazEkon.

Findings: In literature on the subject, the significance of crowdfunding for businesses at early stages of their growth is emphasized. However, there are very few publications directly about SMEs. Among the articles analyzed, the relevance of crowdfunding in reducing the funding gap and financial exclusion has been emphasized. However, our search for articles about the said phenomenon produced a very small number of such articles, which – considering quite a large number of articles in total – clearly means that this topic is rarely discussed and studied. The aspects associated with the relationships between the banking sector and crowdfunding are discussed in a majority of the articles under analysis, but there is still no empirical research in this area.

Value Added: The literature review carried out allowed us to identify research gaps in such important areas for crowdfunding as funding for the SME sector and relationships between crowdfunding and banking. As opposed to other similar research projects, we do not omit methodological constraints affecting the final results of studies and we suggest solutions allowing for a more in-depth analysis of articles.

Recommendations: A suggested further direction of research concerns the use of the theory of enterprise funding sources in studies of the role of crowdfunding when compared to other forms of fundraising (the theory of alternative and transactional costs) by SMEs. When planning further research, the following needs to be done: 1) To carry out comprehensive research, since all the studies carried out so far were only fragmentary. It particularly applies to relationships between SMEs, the banking sector, and crowdfunding. 2) To extend research according to criteria that allow sources discarded in this research to compare findings.


During the last years, gamification has been a burning issue and a subject of scientific discussions. Gamification is an innovative solution to foster motivation. It relates to the use of game elements in non-game contexts. By applying game mechanics to training and other business critical processes, organizations can improve employee engagement, boost productivity and lift operational performance. Over the last few decades, it has been noticed the significant enhancement of time spent attending meetings. Meetings are essential for the organizations, they improve the effectiveness of a company team working and are necessary for human relations. Nevertheless, in many cases meetings are considered as a waste of time. There are very few scientific papers that regarding the use of gamification for business meeting changes. The study seeks to explore the behavioural change of participants towards business meetings after introducing a business game, in order to come up with an interesting solution that might be useful for other researchers and practitioners in understanding the use of gamification in similar contexts. With regard to this aim, a single-case holistic design methodology is used and qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with gamification experts and project managers is applied. This paper contributes both to the scientific literature and to managerial implication.


In der Wissensgesellschaft differenziert sich die Raumstruktur in eine Vielzahl von Raumtypen aus; auch der ländliche Raum stellt sich nicht als ein homogenes Gebilde dar. Die „reflexive Moderne“ der Wissensgesellschaft scheint keinen Determinismus in Bezug auf räumliche Entwicklungsunterschiede zu kennen, sondern den Menschen Spielräume für eine Aneignung und Inwertsetzung unterschiedlicher Räume zu öffnen. Diese erweiterten Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten könnten auch in dem bisher als zurückbleibend eingeschätzten ländlichen Raum neue Entwicklungsimpulse auslösen. Zur Überprüfung dieser Annahmen wird in diesem Beitrag aus einem theoretischen Blickwinkel gefragt, wie die kulturellen, sozialen, wirtschaftlichen und technischen Dimensionen der Wissensgesellschaft mit dem Raum interagieren und welche Herausforderungen sowie Strategien sich daraus für den ländlichen Raum ergeben können. Die empirische Überprüfung stützt sich auf Ergebnisse einer Arbeitsgruppe der Akademie für Raumforschung und Landesplanung (ARL) zur Wissensgesellschaft in ländlich-peripheren Regionen sowie ergänzend auf weitere quantitative und qualitative Studien zum Thema. Aus diesen Untersuchungen geht hervor, dass sich in vielen, wenn auch nicht in allen Regionen neuartige wissensgesellschaftlich geprägte Lebenskulturen in Abgrenzung zu städtischen Lebensmodellen entfalten. Sie belegen eine neue Attraktivität des ländlichen Raumes, die sich auch in wissensbasierten Projekten der Kultur, Bildung, Daseinsvorsorge und des unternehmerischen Engagements niederschlägt. Beispiele finden sich besonders in wirtschaftlich wettbewerbsfähigen Regionen, aber auch in den peripheren Regionen, die unter Bevölkerungsverlusten leiden. Es bleibt weiteren Untersuchungen vorbehalten zu eruieren, wie diese Ansätze von öffentlichen Akteuren strategisch genutzt werden können, um den wissensgesellschaftlichen Wandel voranzutreiben. Sie können helfen, in erfolgreichen Regionen gesammelte Erfahrungen für eine politische und planerische Unterstützung peripherer Städte und Regionen im ländlichen Raum zu nutzen.

The Slovak Theatre – 2017 – Volume 65 – Number 3 DOI: 10.1515/sd-2017-0014 TRANSFORMATIONS OF CONTEMPORARY THEATRE PRACTICES. A REFLECTION ON THE CREATIVE PROCESS AS RESEARCH MIROSLAV BALLAY Department of Cultural Studies at the Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra Abstract: The study offers an outline of certain modifications of contemporary Slovak theatre culture under the influence of ongoing socio-cultural changes. The author reviews the status of contemporary theatre in society while following the ever-changing character


What keeps cultural studies in motion and, more difficult still, what hold them together? They are continuously animated through so-called ‚turns‘ that in regular intervals open up new perspectives and transform the leading issues and concepts. Such regular innovations are not only due to internal readjustments in terms of methodological changes but are also connected to cultural and social changes. In this way, cultural studies have become an integral part of the transformation of the world as we see and construct it. They are not only a lense through which we observe the transformation of the world, but also a tool with which it is produced. In this active engagement and entanglement with the real world, cultural studies have lost a sense of their professional boundaries. They are constantly extending their realm of research, incorporating avidly new territory. To the extent that cultural studies have embraced the project of cultural self-thematization and self-transformation, they have become as fluid and volatile as culture itself.