Lenka Blinová, Alica Bartošová and Kristína Gerulová
. Bioresource technology , Vol. 102 , pp. 9135–9142.
33. VAIČIULYTĖ, S. et al. 2014. Batch Growth of Chlorella Vulgaris CCALA 896 versus Semi-Continuous Regimen for Enhancing Oil-Rich Biomass Productivity. Energies , 7 (6), 2014, pp. 3840–3857.
34. YEH, K. L., CHANG, J. S. 2012. Effects of cultivationconditions and media composition on cell growth and lipid productivity of indigenous microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31. Bioresource technology , Vol. 105 , pp. 120–127.
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Karol Fijałkowski, Anna Żywicka, Radosław Drozd, Marian Kordas and Rafał Rakoczy
The aim of the study was to analyze the changes in the parameters of bacterial cultures and bacterial cellulose (BC) synthesized by four reference strains of Gluconacetobacter xylinus during 31-day cultivation in stationary conditions. The study showed that the most visible changes in the analyzed parameters of BC, regardless of the bacterial strain used for their synthesis, were observed in the first 10–14 days of the experiment. It was also revealed, that among parameters showing dependence associated with the particular bacterial strain were the rate and period of BC synthesis, the growth rate of bacteria anchored to the cellulose fibrils, the capacity to absorb water and the water release rate. The results presented in this work may be useful in the selection of optimum culturing conditions and period from the point of view of good efficiency of the cellulose synthesis process.
significantly depends on cultivationconditions, optimal temperature, pH and duration of cultivation. From the point of view of TNT assimilation the optimal temperature for the deep cultivation of selected strains – Aspergillus niger K 3-5, Mucor sp. T1-1, Trichoderma sp N2-6 and Aspergillus niger N2-2 was conducted between 20°C and 50°C, at intervals of 5°C. All three strains are typical mesophiles with the optimum of growth and TNT degradation at temperatures between 30-40°C. The results are shown in Fig. 3a, 3b and 3c .
Degradation of TNT at
eutropha , or Alcaligenes eutrophus ( 23 )). In this context, it was of interest to study the possibility to enhance volumetric PHA productivity by reaching higher amounts of catalytically active biomass within a shorter time by adapting the composition of the nutrient broth during the phase of biomass growth; after switching the cultivationconditions (typically by provoking a limitation of a growth essential nutrient like nitrogen- or phosphate source), a higher total quantity of PHA can be produced per fermentation batch than in the case of low cell density ( 24
The effect of liquid paraffin and diesel oil as nutrient amendments for hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria was compared. Different parameters were analyzed - optical density of bacterial suspension, oxygen consumption by biomass, morphology of bacteria, etc. In some experiments the paraffin was more preferable for microorganisms, but in other tests the results for both substances were similar. The influence of the comparable substances strongly depends on cultivation conditions.
Katarzyna Bączek, Olga Kosakowska, Jarosław L. Przybył and Zenon Węglarz
Introduction: Purple betony (Stachys officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is a perennial of versatile medicinal usage. Nowadays, in Poland betony herb is collected exclusively from wild growing plants. Decreasing number of its natural sites results in lack of the herb supply and thus, in its limited usage.
Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of the age of plant and term of raw material harvest on its yield and quality in cultivation conditions.
Methods: The observations were carried out on 2- and 3-year-old plants. During vegetation the herb was collected for four times. The raw material was subjected to chemical analysis. Tannins (as pyrogallol equivalent) were determined according to Polish Pharmacopoeia, phenolic acids and flavonoids – by HPLC.
Results: The mass of herb, both in the second and third year, had increased from the beginning of vegetation up to seed setting. The highest content of tannins was found in the herb collected at the vegetative stage of plant development (2.05% in the second and 2.91% in the third year). Four phenolic acids (chlorogenic, ferulic, caffeic and rosmarinic acids) and five flavonoid compounds (orientin, luteolin-7-glucoside, apigenin-7-glucoside, apigenin-3-glucoside, apigenin) were identified in the obtained raw materials. In these groups, the dominant compounds were caffeic acid and apigenin. The highest content of caffeic acid was found at the beginning of plant vegetation, whereas apigenin – at the stage of full blooming and seed setting.
Conclusion: In cultivation conditions, purple betony produces high mass of herb which may be used as a valuable raw material in herbal industry.
The autochthonous Feteasca neagra variety, cultivated in four wine regions of Romania, was comparatively assessed in order to characterize its quality potential in different terroirs. Among the variables of the terroir, the clone of Feteasca neagra is also a factor. Thus, in Murfatlar region we find either clone 9Mf or the massal selection, in Stefanesti clone 4VI is planted, while in Pietroasa and Bucharest clone 10Pt is cultivated. To assess the behaviour of the variety in different wine regions physico-chemical analyses of the grapes were performed, along with the determination of the uvological and phenolic maturity parameters. The results show a high variability, induced both by the cultivation conditions and the selected clone. Although the harvesting was done at approximately the same date, differences in all assessed parameters are found to be directly dependent on the clone, even in the case of the cultivation in the same region (Murfatlar), while the same clone (10Pt) shows a different behaviour when cultivated in separated regions (Pietroasa or Bucharest). The most important characteristics of the grapes are presented and discussed, with a special emphasis on the parameters related to phenolic maturity, which are the most important for the colour and aging potential of the wines. The other compositional parameters are discussed as well, as they also influence the wine’s balance. The favourability of the different regions for the cultivation of Feteasca neagra is assessed, taking into account the wine style which can be obtained from the raw materials, such as wines destined for aging or wines suitable for consumption while young
Cachiţă-Cosma D., 1987 - Metode in vitro la plantele de cultură - Baze teoretice şi practice (In vitro methods in crop plants - theoretical and practical basis). Edit. Ceres, Bucureşti, p.173-176.
Ciobanu, I.B., Constantinovici, D., Creţu, L., 2011 - Influence of genotype and cultivationconditions on vitroplantlets evolution of Solanum tuberosum L. local varieties. Analele Univ. ,,Al. I. Cuza” Iaşi, Biologie vegetală, Tomul LVII, fasc. 2.s. II-a, p.13-20.
Engelmann, F., Drew, R.A., 1998
János Ágoston, Péter Tóth-Horgosi, Tímea Kiss and Zsuzsanna Tóthné Taskovics
különböző termesztési módok esetén. Hajtatás Korai Termesztés XXXVI (4), 27–31.
 Helyes, L. (2007), A Paradicsom ( Lycopersicon lycopersicum ) ( L. ) KARSEN ) termésképződésére ható abiotikius és biotikus tényezők értékelése különös tekintettel a beltartalmi összetevőkre . MTA doktori értekezés. Gödöllő.
 Helyes, L., Dimény, J., Pék, Z., Lugasi, A. (2006), Effect of the variety and growing methods as well as cultivationconditions on ingredient of tomato ( Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.) KARSTEN) fruit. Acta Horticulturae 712, 511–516.
Tomasz Sosulski, Magdalena Szymańska and Ewa Szara
This review assesses the adaptability and effectiveness of the basic practices to mitigate the N2O emissions from the arable land in the climate, soil and agricultural conditions of Poland. We have analyzed the decrease in the nitrogen-based fertilization, selection of the fertilizer nitrogen forms, use of biological inhibitors of nitrogen transformation in the soil, control of the acidic soil reaction, reduction in the natural fertilizers use and afforestation of the low productive soils. The challenge evaluating the effectiveness of mitigation practices lies in the inadequacy of the national data on N2O soil emissions in particular agrotechnical conditions. In Poland, circumstances that favor intensive N2O emissions from the arable soils occur uncommonly, as shows the analysis of the literature reporting on the country climate, soil and agricultural conditions alongside the N2O emissions from soils under various cultivation conditions. Consequently, the effectiveness of mitigation practices that relies on an extensification of plant production may be insufficient. It can be assumed that, at the doses of nitrogen fitting the nutritional needs of crops, the soil N2O emissions are low and do not meaningfully differ from the emissions from untreated soils (literature data point to limited N2O emission from arable soils treated with N doses of ≤150-200 kg N·ha-1). The effectiveness of the nitrogen fertilization reduction as an N2O emissions mitigation practice is restricted to intensive farming. A universal registry of the mineral and natural fertilization use could help identify the agricultural holdings with a potential for high N2O emission and foster a targeted application of mitigation practices. It is suggested that normalization and maintenance of the optimum (i.e. close to neutral) soil pH should become a more common practice of N2O emissions mitigation in Poland in view of the extent of arable soils acidification and the literature data that indicate elevated N2O emissions from acid soils. Application of urease and nitrification inhibitors alongside nitrogen fertilization can be considered an effective practice of N2O emissions mitigation. Owing to economic reasons the use of nitrogen fertilizers with such additives is currently limited to non-agricultural segments of plant production. Afforestation of the low productive soils offers an attractive opportunity for mitigation of N2O emissions. Whereas N2O emissions from forest soils are considerably lower compared with those from the arable ones, the literature indicates that no N2O emissions mitigation is attained through a conversion of arable land to agroforestry. Considering the current forest area of Poland (24.9% of the total area) and the plans to increase the afforestation rate (to 33% in 2050) the measurable effects of this mitigation practice will only be seen in a long-term perspective.
Besides identifying and excelling the mitigation practices the authors postulate a review of the algorithms employed by the National Centre for Emissions Management (KOBiZE) for the calculation of the GHG emissions. Solutions applied by KOBiZE appear to address mainly the area - or population-related aspects and, to a much lesser degree, the actual N2O production. In this context, the effects of certain N2O emissions mitigation practices might be difficult to be taken into consideration. The application of national statistics of the use of mineral and natural fertilizers to the calculation of the N2O emissions from the arable soils might be questioned given that the N2O emissions are driven by the actual local N dose.