Pitojo T. Juwono, Lily Montarcih Limantara and Fathor Rosiadi
A bdulkader A.M.A., A moud A.I.A., A wad F.S. 2012. Optimization of the croppingpattern in Saudi Arabia. Agricultural Economics – Czech. Vol. 58. Iss. 2 p. 56–60.
G akpo E., T sephe J., N wonwu F., V ilkoen M. 2006. Application of stochastic programming (SDP) for the optimal allocation of irrigation water under capacity sharing arrangements. Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA). Vol. 44. No. 4 p. 436–451.
G upta I., Z aag P.V.D. 2007. Inter-basin water transfers and integrated water resources
The irrational use of water in agriculture is often responsible for several problems concerning the depletion of water resources. Water resources sustainability has crucial for the existence of farming system which is dependent on the cropping pattern practices. This paper concerns the studies of existing water resource management and determines factors affecting decision making about water use and management within different farming systems. In these cases, a multi-criteria decision making model (MCDM) has been determined that aims at allocating efficient water and land resources to farms in the Ping watershed area in northern Thailand by optimizing a set of important socio-economic objectives which depend on sustainable agricultural (rural) development. The solution was found by using two analytical steps as follows: single objective optimization and compromise programming.
These resources include: land, labour, capital, fertilizer, pesticides and irrigation water. Existing cropping pattern included the inseason rice, off season-rice, vegetables (chili, pak choi, cauliflower, long bean, cabbage), soybean and sweet corn. Under the model cropping pattern conditions the in-season rice was produced for the household consumption and specially found in irrigated areas with storage dam. The model recommended that the suitable cropping pattern of the in-season rice followed by chili and long bean increased the gross margin two times. The amount of water used for the irrigation decreased by 6.84 percent from original 1,198,904 m3 at the existing cropping pattern to 1,116,902 m3 at the model cropping pattern.
However, in the case of the irrigated areas with water gates the model showed that the suitable cropping pattern was not different from the existing ones. However, the recommended model cropping pattern as the suitable cropping pattern consisting of the inseason rice followed by vegetables, sugar cane and perennial crops such as longan increased the gross margin three times while the water use increased only by 2.25 percent from the existing cropping pattern (from 1,374,655 m3 to 1,405,582 m3 at the model cropping pattern).
In the case of the rainfed areas the model cropping pattern recommended to grow the in-season rice, tobacco and longan on farm which increased the gross margin six times. However, the water using increased slightly from the existing on-farm water consumption (101,601.2 m3) up to 680,869 m3 as linked to the model cropping pattern.
Abro, M.B. & Abbasi, Z..A. (2002). Effect of Sesbania rostrata ( Dhaincha ) green manure on the yield of rice. J.Appl.Sci ., 2(7): 768-769.
Alam, M.K. & Salahin, N. (2013). Changes in Soil physical properties and crop productivity as influenced by different tillage depths and croppingpatterns. Bangladesh J.Agril.Res ., 38: 289-299.
Anonymous (2012). Fertilizer Recommendation Guide, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Farm gate, Dhaka 1215, p. 275.
Assefa, M.K., von Tucher, S. & Schmidhalter, U. (2014). Soil sulfur
Akmal Kh. Karimov, Munir A. Hanjra, Jiří Šimůnek and Botir Abdurakhmannov
The study examines possible water savings by replacing alfalfa with winter wheat in the Fergana Valley, located upstream of the Syrdarya River in Central Asia. Agricultural reforms since the 1990s have promoted this change in cropping patterns in the Central Asian states to enhance food security and social benefits. The water use of alfalfa, winter wheat/fallow, and winter wheat/green gram (double cropping) systems is compared for high-deficit, low-deficit, and full irrigation scenarios using hydrological modeling with the HYDRUS-1D software package. Modeling results indicate that replacing alfalfa with winter wheat in the Fergana Valley released significant water resources, mainly by reducing productive crop transpiration when abandoning alfalfa in favor of alternative cropping systems. However, the winter wheat/fallow cropping system caused high evaporation losses from fallow land after harvesting of winter wheat. Double cropping (i.e., the cultivation of green gram as a short duration summer crop after winter wheat harvesting) reduced evaporation losses, enhanced crop output and hence food security, while generating water savings that make more water available for other productive uses. Beyond water savings, this paper also discusses the economic and social gains that double cropping produces for the public within a broader developmental context.
A. Ahmad, Z.I. Ahmed, M. Shehzad, I. Aziz, K.S. Khan, M. Shoaib, T. Mehmood and K. Mubeen
Ali M., A.N., Ganesshamurthy, Ch.Srrinivasarao, 2002 - Pulses for soil health and sustainable crop production. Indian Journal of Pulses Research, (15):107-117.
Anonymous, 2012 - Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan. Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock (Economic wing), Islamabad, Pakistan.
Arif M., M.A. Malik, 2009 - Economic feasibility of proposed croppingpatterns under different soil moisture regimes of Pothwar plateau. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 11: 27
Iqbal Hussain, Abdul Wahid, Rizwan Rasheed and Hafiz Muhammad Akram
The greenhouse (GH) effect has emerged as a major factor in changing cropping patterns and limiting crop yields. This study was conducted to determine the comparative growth and photosynthetic responses of selected heat-resistant (cv. Sadaf) and heat-susceptible (cv. Agatti-2002) cultivars of maize to simulated GH conditions during spring and autumn seasons at seedling, silking and grain filling stages in 2007. Fifteen day old plants were shifted to plexiglass-fitted canopies to create GH conditions and data were recorded at each growth stage. The results revealed that the seasons, GH conditions and cultivars had large effects on plant growth and photosynthetic attributes. Simulated GH conditions increased the canopy temperature 4-7 °C in spring and 3-5 °C in autumn, but increased relative humidity by 2-3% in spring and 5-9% in autumn season. Although GH reduced the growth of both cultivars, shoot dry mass was reduced more in spring grown heat-susceptible maize at all growth stages. Although the cultivars showed a decrease in growth and photosynthesis, GH conditions resulted in less damage to cv. Sadaf than cv. Agatti-2002 in both seasons. Major indicators of sensitivity to GH effect were loss of chlorophyll b and carotenoids, reductions in net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, and possibly reduced ability of Rubisco to fix CO2 in sensitive maize.
A survey based questionnaire research was conducted in Sainj Valley, Himachal Pradesh. The survey was conducted in June-July 2015 in an area affected due to hydro power projects (HPPs). A total of 48 individuals participated in the survey. Based on survey questionnaire, it was found that native rural people perceived that HPPs had significantly brought positive change in life of native people and were therefore in favour of HPPs. However, large section of native people had not been benefited of HPPs. The decline in agriculture production, change in cropping pattern and poor access of water to native people were some of the negative implications of these projects. The dependence of native people on forest resources has not declined much and still number of local individuals depends on forest resources to supplement their income. Though, in current scenario people has benefited from such projects, however it is not known if it will be sustained for long time due to current unsustainable agriculture practices and limited employment opportunities. Moreover, Government should provide adequate compensation to the affected individuals by either providing a suitable land for agriculture or employment under various rural sector schemes.
Ehiabhi Cyril Odion, Idris Salihu Ahmadu, Ahmed Rufai Aminu, Grace Lamba Luka, Shero Abdulazeaz Isah and Uthman Lucky Arunah
The paper looks at estimation of the agronomic efficiency (AE) for various crop mixtures at varying levels of fertility management. To evaluate the concept, three trials using different cropping patterns and fertility rates were reviewed by calculating and comparing the relative yield and agronomic efficiency of the main crop. AE was higher in the mixtures compared to the sole crop in all the trials, and in the mixtures while efficiency between the control and the fertility levels employed were high, those between the fertility levels were not as high and increased at a reducing rate, sometimes tending to be constant. These responses gave rise to situations similar to a quadratic response and could therefore permit for optimum fertility levels for crop mixtures to be predicted. This therefore means that sustainable intensification is possible under small scale production systems as increase in efficiency was higher at lower fertilizer rates compared to the higher rates. Assessment of AE for crop mixture could also result in staggered recommended production practices, thus discouraging the excessive use of fertilizers – chemical or organic – and cut cost of production, reduce the pollution of the environment with its attendant consequences while production costs could be within reach of the small scale farmers. Small scale family farmers seeking alternative methods of soil fertility management could be encouraged to undertake the clipping/thinning management of companion leguminous crops as such measures could enhance their productivity as the estimation of AE has shown in these investigations. The practice of either clipping or thinning of the leguminous companion crop is similar or close to current production practices employed by these farmers and therefore should not be difficult to adapt and adopt.
The paper identifies and compares the energy balance of winter wheat, spring barley and white mustard – all grown in crop rotation under different tillage conditions. The field trial included the conventional tillage (CT) method, minimum tillage (MT) and a system with no tillage (NT). The energy inputs included both the direct and indirect energy component. Energy outputs are evaluated as gross calorific value (gross heating value of phytomass dry matter) of the primary product and the total harvested production. The energy effectiveness (energy output: energy input) was selected for evaluation. The greatest energy effectiveness for the primary product was established as 6.35 for barley, 6.04 for wheat and 3.68 for mustard; in the case of total production, it was 9.82 for barley, 10.08 for wheat and 9.72 for mustard. When comparing the different tillage conditions, the greatest energy effectiveness was calculated for the evaluated crops under the MT operation and represented the primary product of wheat at 6.49, barley at 6.69 and mustard at 3.92. The smallest energy effectiveness for the primary product was found in wheat 5.77 and barley 6.10 under the CT option; it was 3.55 for mustard under the option of NT. Throughout the entire cropping pattern, the greatest energy effectiveness was established under the minimum tillage option – 5.70 for the primary product and 10.47 for the total production. On the other hand, the smallest values were calculated under CT – 5.22 for the primary product and 9.71 for total production.
Soil mining is a major problem of low technology farming and replenishing such loses is one of the problems farmers face. Trials conducted in 2004 and 2005 at Samaru, (11011’N, 07038’E and 686m a.s.l) in the northern Guinea savanna ecology of Nigeria, estimated the response of maize (Zea mays L.) and soyabean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) intercrops to green manure from the soyabean companion crop at various nitrogen fertility levels. Treatments were a factorial combination of four maize/soyabean mixtures in replacement and additive mixtures as well as their sole crops and four nitrogen rates arranged in randomized complete block (RCBD) in three replicates. Treatments improved the soil’s physical and chemical (soil C: 2 – 10 %; total N: over 100%; CEC: 20-80%) properties in 2005. Maize in replacement mixture had heavier cobs and 100-seed weight than in additive mixtures; while two plants excelled three plants per stand in these yield components and grain yield per hectare. Soyabean in additive mixture had heavier pods and 100-seed weight and seed yield per hectare than in replacement mixture. Crops in three row plots had significantly heavier pods, 100-seed weight, and seed yield than those in two row plots. Yield and yield parameters of maize increased significantly with increase in the rate of N applied while for soyabeans the 60 and 90 kg N ha−1 were similar in yield and yield parameters. Mixtures gave higher than expected LER values of mixed crops. Maize LER values at 60 and 90 kg N ha−1 were higher than 1.00, making soyabean a bonus crop. Total LER for the crops showed that crops in mixtures performed better than combined sole crops at 90 kg N ha−1. Agronomic efficiency was highest at 12:2(A) cropping pattern and 30 kg N ha−1, while replacement mixtures had higher efficiency values at low N application and the 12:2(A) had higher efficiency value at higher N rates.