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References (2011). Digital transform and social networks, Pew Research Center, Retrieved January 26, 2015, from . Breakenridge, D. (2008). PR 2.0: New media, new tools, new audiences . Upper Saddle River: FT Press. Capozzi, L., & Rucci, S. R. (2013). Crisis management in the Age of Social Media , Business Expert Press, LLC. Chavez, G. (2013). Social media can help – or hinder- crisis communication efforts, Communication World, 28 (6), 38. Darling, J

Crisis Communication: Planning, Managing, and Responding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Eriksen, T. H. (1993) Ethnicity and Nationalism: Anthropological Perspectives. London: Pluto Press. Falkheimer, J., & Heide, M. (2006) ‘Multicultural Crisis Communication: Towards a Social Constructionist Perspective’, Journal of Contingencies & Crisis Management , 14(4). Falkheimer, J. & Heide, M. (2008) Kriskommunikation i ett globalt samhälle . KBM:s temaserie 2008:4. Stockholm: Krisberedskapsmyndigheten. Fink, S. (1986) Crisis Management: Planning for the Inevitable. New York


Humour and irony are normally not recommended within crisis communication. So when the main Swedish rail company SJ in January 2011 issued three short videos taking an ironical stance on the company and its damaged reputation, it attracted a great deal of attention. But the good will generated by this unexpected irony was apparently never fully understood by the management, and was thus lost or directly undermined by their subsequent communication.

This article addresses the specific case of SJ’s crisis communication in early 2011, with particular interest in the question of the use of humour and irony in a crisis situation.

, 2009 and 2014). Few crisis communication researchers have examined the visual dimension of crisis communication. Most cases have focused on how various types of visual elements affect stakeholder perceptions and reactions. Fahmy and colleagues (2006) and Miller and LaPoe (2016) investigated the impact of disaster imagery from an agenda-setting perspective, while Dahmen and Miller (2012) approached the same topic from an iconicity perspective. Based on the framework of situational crisis communication theory and an experimental research design, Coombs and

References Allen, M.W. and Caillouet, R.H. (1994),“Legitimate endeavors: Impression management strategies used by an organization in crisis”, Communication Monographs , Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 44–62. Benoit, W.L. (1995), Accounts, excuses, and apologies: A theory of image restoration , State University of New York Press, Albany. Benoit, W.L. (1997),“Image repair discourse and crisis communication”, Public Relations Review, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 177–186. Benoit, W.L. (2005),“Image restoration theory”, in R.L. Heath (Ed.), Encyclopedia of public relations , Sage


The present article examines how crisis communication after catastrophes can strengthen society or undermine trust, credibility and confidence between the authorities and the general public. The two cases examined are the Norwegian authorities’ communicative response to the Chernobyl power plant disaster on 26 April, 1986, and the terrorist attacks on the government complex in Oslo and the Labour Party youth camp on the island of Utøya on 22 July, 2011. The analysis compares the initial phase of crisis communication. A serious communication crisis arose between the authorities and the public after Chernobyl, while communication during the early days after 22 July was successful. The difference is explained by the concept of rationality; crisis communication after Chernobyl was based on technical rationality, whereas communication after the terror attacks was grounded on the rationality of caring. The theoretical framework originates from Heidegger’s existential phenomenology with special focus on the existentiales Being-in-the-World, State of Mind and Care.

. The handbook of crisis communication . Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 205-221. GOFFMAN, E., 1967. Interaction ritual: Essays in face-to-face behaviour . Garden City, NY: Doubleday. GRUBNER, H., 1993. Political language and textual vagueness. In: Ch. Briggs, F. Brisard, Y. Fujii, H. Grubner, S. Marmaridou, R. Marquez Reiter and G. Senft, eds. Pragmatics. 3.1. Quarterly Publication of the International Pragmatics Association, pp. 1- 28. HARRÉ, R., 1985. Persuasion and manipulation. In: T.A. van Dijk, ed. Discourse and communication. New approaches to the


In this study we conducted a research on the Facebook page of the Romanian Gendarmerie, to understand the magnitude of the effects of the crisis this institution is facing after the Diaspora Protest ended in violence. We monitored the posts from August 10 to December 31, 2018 and analyzed the most relevant 50 comments from each post, in order to determine their character: positive, negative or neutral. In conducting this study, we started from the hypothesis that this event has affected the image of the Romanian Gendarmerie in the long time, and the crisis communication strategies used by the representatives of this institution have made a significant contribution to postponing the image restoration.


The way of conducting communication during the image crisis is a special type of challenge for the company. Lack of preparation of the company for proper communication management may be crucial in averting and/or reducing the effects of crises. The paper presents the results of research conducted among experts from the PR industry and representatives of the largest Polish enterprises from the 500 List compiled by “Rzeczpospolita” daily newspaper. The vast majority of Polish enterprises show an open-minded approach to crisis communication. Companies from oppressive industries, where crises occur more often, are better prepared for crisis communication. The determinants of effective communication in the situation of image threats are, according to the leaders of public relations agencies, anti-crisis preparation, presence of procedures, openness and honesty in communication processes as well as quick response time.

Introduction The communicative role of ordinary people in crises and disasters has inevitably changed in this era of a digital media environment. Instead of assuming the role of a passive audience trapped in the position of ritualised spectators ( Chouliaraki, 2013 ), ordinary people can now participate in the construction of crises through the practices of crisis communication (e.g. Park & Johnston, 2017 ). In this article, I investigate the crisis responses of citizens as ritualised practices in the case of the Stockholm terror attack in April 2017. In this