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REFERENCES Allen, Cynthia. 1997. Middle English case loss and the ‘creolization’ hypothesis. English Language and Linguistics 1.1. 63–89. DOI: 10.1017/S1360674300000368 Bailey, Charles James & Karl Maroldt. 1977. The French lineage of English. In Jürgen Meisel (ed.), Langues en contact: Pidgins, creoles , Tübingen: TBL. 21–53. Bech, Kristin & George Walkden. 2016. English is (still) a West Germanic language. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 39.1. 65–100. DOI: 10.1017/S0332586515000219 Christiansen, Morten H. & Nick Chater. 2009. The myth of language universals

References Bakhtin. Mikhail M. 1981a. Epic and Novel. In The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays, ed. Michael Holquist. 3-10. Austin: University of Texas Press. Bakhtin. Mikhail M. 1981b. Discourse in the Novel. In The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays, ed. Michael Holquist. 269-422. Austin: University of Texas Press. Beiser. Vince. 2011. An Interview with David Simon. The Progressive March: 33-36. <>. Last accessed 19. 02. 2015. Cohen. Robin. 2007. Creolization and Cultural Globalization: The Soft Sounds of Fugitive

.3917/lfa.176.0113. Bernabé J., (2016). Réflexions sur le statut et les pratiques énonciatives des créoles. In J.-B.P. Durizot (Ed.), Les cahiers créoles du patrimoine de la Caraïbe : pawòl maké asi mès é labitid an péyi karayib (pp.42–47). Chasseneuil Du Poitou: Réseau Canopé. Blerald M. (2017). Concours de recrutement du second degré : Rapport de jury, CAPES externe, langues régionales . Créole, Ministère de l’Éducation Nationale. Bolus, M., (2010). The Teaching of Creole in Guadeloupe. In B. Migge I. Léglise and A. Bartens (Eds.), Creoles in Education: An appraisal


This paper describes the linguistic and cultural influence of India on the countries of Indo-China in the 5th to 15th centuries A D. It is shown that India’s penetration into South-East Asia took the forms of Late Brahmanism ~ Early Hinduism and of Buddhism. Indian settlers were promoting different variants of Sanskrit written culture in Java. Differences between culturally dominant Sanskrit, the language of the Indian migrants, and the orally used Austronesian languages of Java were great; as a result of interaction between the two there appeared highly Sanskritized versions of Old Western Javanese (Kavi) and later also of Old Balinese. Between the 7th and 15th centuries a great number of literary texts in Kavi were created in Java. The influx of Indian culture into ancient Burma, realized mostly by the land-route and only partially by sea, implied two main waves differing linguistically: the Sanskrit-bound wave and the P āli-bound one. Under the influence of Sanskrit and numerous texts in Sanskrit a Mon script based on the Indian brāhmī was developed in Upper Burma in the 9th century; later on it became the national system of writing, in use even today. The starting point for the history of Pāli epigraphy and literature in Burma was 1058 AD when Theravāda Buddhism was proclaimed the state religion of the Pagan kingdom. In the 11th to 15th centuries a great number of works in different fields of knowledge appeared in Burma. T he language used in them was a creolized Pāli/Burmese resulting from the intensive linguistic interaction between Pāli and Sanskrit on one hand and the vernaculars on the other. The most important stages in the development of this language and of literary activity in it are characterized.

REFERENCES Ansaldo, Umberto et al. 2007. Deconstructing Creole. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Beekes, Robert. 1996. “Ancient European Loanwords”, H.S . 109: 215-236. Beekes, Robert. 2009. Etymological Dictionary of Greek (2 vol.). Leiden: Brill. Benozzo, Francesco. 2010. “The Mesolithic Distillation of Pitch and its Ethnolinguistic Reflections: A Holocene Etymology for an Italian Verb”, In: Giovanni Belluscio and Antonio Mendicino (eds.), Scritti in onore di Eric Pratt Hamp per il suo 90. compleanno , Università della Calabria: 29-42. Bonfield Kath, Carl Heron and

REFERENCES Aitchison, J. (2003). Words in the mind: An introduction to the mental lexicon . Oxford, England: Wiley-Blackwell. Ammon, R. (2014). Being gay in Papua New Guinea. Retrieved from >Oceania> Papua New Guinea Aufinger, A. (1948/1949). Secret languages of the small islands near Madang. South Pacific , 3 (4), 90–95. Baker, P. (1987). Historical developments in Chinese Pidgin English and the nature of the relationships between the various Pidgin Englishes of the Pacific Region. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages , 2

Verbless predicates in Hebrew Ph.D. dissertation University of Texas Austin Doron, E. 1986. “The pronominal copula as agreement clitic”. In: Borer, H. (ed.), The syntax of pronominal clitics . New York: Academic Press. 313–332. Doron E. 1986 “The pronominal copula as agreement clitic” Borer H. The syntax of pronominal clitics New York Academic Press 313 332 Dürrleman-Tame, S. 2008. The syntax of Jamaican Creole. A cartographic perspective . Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Dürrleman-Tame S. 2008 The syntax of Jamaican Creole. A cartographic perspective Amsterdam John


The purpose of this study was to find out the differences in body physique and its proportions between children from Creole, Maya and Mestizo ethnic groups living in Merida, Mexico. The study was conducted between 1996–1999 and comprised of 4636 children and youth aged 6–18 years from three ethnic groups: Maya, Mestizo, and Creole. There were 1362 boys and 1314 girls from Creole group and 803 boys and 857 girls from the pooled Maya/Mestizo group. Anthropometric measurements included body height, arm and leg length, shoulder and hip width. The following indexes were calculated: leg length-to-body height, upper-to-lower limb, shoulder-to-body height, hip-to-body height, and hip-to-shoulder. Two-way analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) was used to test the main effect and the interaction effects of age and ethnicity on height, leg length and body proportions, separately for boys and girls. All statistical analyses were performed using Statistica software version 13.1. All p-values lower than 0.05 were considered significant. Results of this study revealed that average values of body height, leg length and upper-to-lower limb and shoulder width proportions were statistically significantly different between ethnic groups. Creole children were taller and longer-legged than their Maya/Mestizo peers, and the greatest difference was noted after puberty. Maya/Mestizo children had relatively longer arm as compared to Creoles. Results of two-way ANOVA revealed that age and ethnicity were combined (interaction effect) factors for variation in body height both in boys and girls, and upper-to-lower limb proportion in boys, shoulder-to-body height proportion in girls. Ethnicity was the main effect factor for leg length both in boys and girls, and for the body proportions: upper-to-lower limb in girls and shoulder-to-body height in boys. Age was the main effect factor for upper-to-lower limb proportion in girls, shoulder-to-body height in boys, hip-to-body height in boys and girls, and hip-to-shoulder, both in boys and girls. In conclusion it may be stated that variation in body physique and body proportions during the postnatal growth in different ethnic groups is under the influence of complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors to which the individual is exposed.

References Haugen Einar. 1950. "The Analysis of Linguistic Borrowing." Language 26, 210-231. Heath Jeffrey. 1984. "Language Contact and Language Change." Annual Review of Anthropology 13, 367-384. Myers-Scotton Carol. 2002. Language Contact: Bilingual Encounters and Grammatical Outcomes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Thomason Sarah Grey, Kaufman Terrence. 1988. Language Contact, Creolization and Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley: Unversity of California Press. Thomason Sarah Grey. 2001. Language Contact. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press

University Press. Muysken. P. 2001. “The Creole Languages of the Caribbean.“ In: A history of literature in the Caribbean. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 399-414. Nasta, S. (ed.) 1988. Critical Perspectives on Sam Selvon. Washington: Three Continents Press. New, W.H. 1978. “New Language, New World.” In: Bill Ashcroft et al. (eds.). 2003. The Postcolonial Studies Reader. London/New York: Routledge, pp. 303-308. Ramchand, K. 2009. “An Introduction to this novel.” In: Selvon, S. 2009. The Lonely Londoners. New York: Longman. Selvon, S. 2009