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: “Experimental Investigation of the Relation between Damage at the Concrete-Steel Interface and Initiation of Reinforcement Corrosion in Plain and Fibre Reinforced Concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research , Vol. 77, December 2013, pp. 308-321. 5. The Concrete Society: “Relevance of Cracking in Concrete to Reinforcement Corrosion,” Technical report 44, 2nd edition. Hampshire, United Kingdom, December 2015. 6. De Rooij, M., K. Van Tittelboom, N. De Belie, and E. Schlangen: “Self healing Phenomena in Cement-based Materials,” Rilem State of the Art Report , Rilem Technical

References Dahlberg, M. (2004). Fatigue Crack Propagation in Nodular Graphite Cast Iron. In: International Journal of Cast Metals Research, Vol. 17, No. 1, p. 29-37. Davidson, C; Viano, D; Lu, L; et al. (2006). Observation of Crack Initiation during Hot Tearing. In: International Journal of Cast Metals Research, Vol. 19, No. 1, p. 59-65. Gašpar, Š., Paško, J., Puškáš, M. (2014). Effect of Pressing Speed and Specific Pressure in Pressure Mould Cavity on Values of Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Cast of Lower Wight Category made from EN AC 47100 Alloy - 2014. In

References Buttlar W. G., Bozkurt D. (2000) Cost-effectiveness of paving fabrics used to control reflective cracking, Transportation Research Record, Transportation Research Board , 1730, 139–149. Chen D. H., Scullion T., Bilyeu J. (2006) Lessons learned on jointed concrete pavement rehabilitation strategies in Texas, Journal of Transportation Engineering , 132 (3), 257–265. Haas R., Tighe S. (2000) Economic benefits of reducing and treating reflection cracking, Proceedings of the Fourth International RILEM Conference on Reflective Cracking in Pavements

REFERENCES 1. World Health Organization: “WHO Handbook on Indoor Radon: a Public Health Perspective”. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2009, 110 pp. 2. Man C K & Yeung H S: “The Effects of Cracks and Holes on the Exhalation of Radon from Concrete”. Building and Environment , Vol 32, No. 4, 1997, pp. 351-354. 3. Landman K A: “Diffusion of Radon Through Cracks in Concrete Slab”. Health Physics , Vol. 43, Issue 1, 1982, pp. 65-71. 4. Ajayi K M, Shahbazi K, Tukkaraja P, Katzenstein P: “A discrete model for prediction of radon flux from fractured

REFERENCES B aldy K. 2002. Rola zgrupowań pająków w zooindykacji szczelin piaskowcowych Gór Stołowych [The role of spider communities in bioindication of the rock crack in the Stołowe Mountains]. Par. nar. Rez. przyr. 21: 451–469 (in Polish). B aldy K., W oźny M. 1998. Stan zbadania araneofauny na terenie Parku Narodowego Gór Stołowych [State of the aranefauna investigation on the territory of the Stołowe Mts. National Park]. Szczeliniec 2: 89–96 (in Polish). B łoszyk J. 1980. Rodzaj Trachytes Michael, 1894 (Acari, Mesostigmata) w Polsce [Mites of the genus

reinforced with basalt fibre composite Rebar . Construction and Building Materials, 176, 470-481. Elgabbas, F., Vincent, P., Ahmed, E.A., Benmokrane, B., 2016. Experimental testing of basalt-fiber-reinforced polymer bars in concrete beams . Composites Part B, 91, 205e218. Fiore, V., Scalici, T., Di Bella, G., Valenza, A., 2015. A review on basalt fibre and its composites . Composites Part B, 74, 74-94. Kosior-Kazberuk, M., Wasilczyk, R., 2017. Analysis of deflection and cracking of concrete beams with non-metallic reinforcement . Budownictwo i Inżynieria Środowiska, 8

REFERENCES 1. Chau K.T., Wang Y.B. (1999), A new boundary integral formulation for plane elastic bodies containing cracks and holes, International Journal of Solids and Structures , 36(14), 2041–2074. 2. Chen Y.Z. (2011), Solution of multiple crack problem in a finite plate using an alternating method based on two kinds of integral equation, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 35(10), 1109–1115. 3. Chen Y.Z. (2012), Boundary integral equation method for two dissimilar elastic inclusions in an infinite plate, Engineering Analysis with -Boundary

REFERENCES 1. Bäcker D., Kuna M., Häusler C. (2015), Eigenfunctions of crack problems in the Mindlin plate theory, ZAMM – Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics , 95(8), 763–777. 2. Dempsey J. P., Shekhtman I. I., Slepyan L. I. (1998), Closure of a through crack in a plate under bending, International Journal of Solids and Structures , Vol. 35, No. 31-32, 4077–4089. 3. Hsieh M. C., Hwu C. (2002), Anisotropic elastic plates with holes/cracks/inclusions subjected to out-of-plane bending moments, International Journal of Solids and Structures , 39 (19

or mechanical deformation caused by the ferrite and ferroelectric phase of the composite. It is well-known that a wide range of poled MEE materials retains their aligned electric and magnetic dipole fields in the material microstructure below Curie temperature. Alignment of poling directions of piezomagnetic and piezoelectric materials can add to the complexity of the MEE material behavior to which this study will be concerned with. Various investigations have demonstrated that the electric/magnetic poling directions incredibly impact crack growth in piezoelectric

Abstract

Cracks expose wood to fungal infections that significantly affects wood quality, while rapid wound occlusion decreases probability of infections. Assessment of scars was done at four grade scale in three adjacent hybrid aspen trials at the age of 8-10 years in central part of Latvia three years after bark crack occurrence. Occluded wounds were found for 95% of damaged trees, regardless of tree age. Among trees that had cracks wider than 1 cm, 42% had uniformly healed bark, but 7% still had open wounds. Wound development was significantly affected by crack width and length (both p < 0.001), but had no clear relation with tree DBH (diameter at breast height) and relative DBH increment (both p > 0.05). At clonal mean level, scar grade was significantly affected by grade of crack three years earlier and clone (both p < 0.001), but mean DBH of clone had no relation (p > 0.05) to proportion of trees evaluated by any of the scar grades. The results suggest that three years after the bark crack formation most of them had successfully occluded and selection of clones with better diameter growth has no influence on development of cracks.