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, USA, AOAC International, 18th ed. http://pfhb.pl/fileadmin/user_upload/OCENA/publikacje/publikacje_2019/RO_Parzniew-wyniki_oceny_za_rok_2018.pdf ) (online 26.07.2019) Hurtaud C., Peyraud J.L., Michel G., Berthelot D., Delaby L. (2009). Winter feeding systems and dairy cow breed have an impact on milk composition and flavour of two Protected Designation of Origin French cheeses. Animal, 3: 1327–1338. ISO 3433:2008. Cheese – Determination of fat content – Van Gulik method. Geneva, Switzerland, International Organization for Standardization. Król J., Brodziak A

. Chromatographia, 42: 181-184. Turner S. A., Thomson N. A., Auldist M. J. (2007). Variation of lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase in bovine milk and the impact of level of pasture intake. New Zeal. J. Agr. Res., 50: 33-40. Walker G. P., Dunshea F. R., Doyle P. T. (2004). Effects of nutrition and management on the production and composition of milk fat and protein: a review. Aust. J. Agr. Res., 55, 10: 1009-1028. Wielgosz-Groth Z. (2004). Effects of Black and White cows' breed utility improving in the region of north-eastern Poland (in Polish). Dissertations and Monographs, UWM

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to discuss the factors determining the susceptibility of cows to mastitis, the most important for breeders, including losses incurred by milk producers due to the disease. Inflammations of mammary gland are common and the most awkward problem which dairy farmers face around the world. In the case of clinical udder inflammation, it is estimated that the cost of mastitis is about 200 € per cow with fluctuations from 100 even up to 1000 €. Resistance, i.e. the susceptibility of cows to mastitis, is conditioned genetically. The possibility of BoLA and lactoferrin gene polymorphism, using in the selection cows resistant to mastitis, is indicated. Bacteria inhabiting the mammary gland, and the living environment of animals are primarily the main etiological factor. Moreover, many authors indicate the differences between breeds of cows in resistance to mastitis. High-productive breeds are generally more susceptible to the udder inflammation, in comparison to the local breeds. The greatest reduction in milk yield is observed in the case of these breeds, and especially in Holstein-Friesian breed, in which the decline of daily yield at somatic cell count (SCC) amounting above 500,000 per ml of milk can reach 25%. The probability of mastitis occurrence increases with an age of cows and following lactation, and dry period is a time of increased risk. Higher incidence of inflammation is also associated with abnormalities in the construction of the udder (unevenly developed quarters, too long or too short teats). In recent years, a possible relationship between feeding system of cows with their resistance to udder infections has been reported. It is emphasized that a deficiency of selenium and vitamins A and E in the ration may contribute to the increase in the number of mastitis incidences. There are, however, unclear opinions of various authors on the effect of automatic milking system on udder health.

), Proceedings of Ražas svētki „Vecauce – 2016”: Lauksaimniecības zinātne nozares attīstībai, pp. 12-15., ISBN 978-9984-48-240-8. 4. Damiran, D., Larson, K., Pearce, L., Erickson, N., & Lardner, H. A. (2018). Effects of Heifer Calving Date on Longevity and Lifetime Productivity in Western Canada. Sustainable Agriculture Research ; 7(4); 11-17. DOI: 10.5539/sar.v7n4p11. 5. Griņevičs, I. & Grosvalds, I. (2006). Latvijas govju šķirņu izveidošana un Latvijas Zilās govs izzušana (Creation of Latvian Cow Breeds and Disappearance of the Latvian Blue Cow). http

Abstract

Milk composition is of prime economic importance for farmers. Milk total proteins are composed of casein, whey proteins and non-protein nitrogen. The objective of this work was to establish milk crude protein, non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and urea content in dairy cow milk produced in different farms in Latvia. Cow milk samples (n=30) were collected in September 2012 from four different farms breeding diverse cow breeds. Average crude protein, casein and urea content in milk varied significantly among farms. NPN content in cow milk varies among farms - from 0.194% to 0.232%. Average crude protein and casein content was significantly higher (p<0.05) for Latvia Brown breed cows, while NPN content did not differ significantly among breeds. Regression between NPN and urea content in milk was R² = 0.458. Correlation between NPN and urea content was significant (r = 0.677). This study allowed establishing that crude protein and NPN content in milk varied significantly (p<0.05) in farms with differing dairy cow housing and feeding technologies

. Ann. Zootech., 49: 497-503. De Marchi M., Dal Zotto R., Cassandro M., Bittante G. (2007). Milk coagulation ability of five dairy cattle breeds. J. Dairy Sci., 90 (8): 3986-3992. FAOSTAT (2010). Statistics Division, 8.11.2011 http://faostat.fao.org/ Felius M., Koolmees P. A., Theunissen B. (2011). On the breeds of cattle - historic and current classifications. Diversity, 3: 660-692. Grega T., Sady M., Najgebauer D., Domagała J., Faber B. (2005). Bioactive components of milk from different cow breeds. Biotechnol. Anim. Husb., 21 (5-6): 35-38. Guinee T. P., Mulholland

., Martin B., Grolier P., Doreau M. (2006). Carotenoids for ruminants: From forages to dairy products. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 131: 418–450. Petrera F., Catillo G., Napolitano F., Malacarne M., Franceschi P., Summer A., Abeni F. (2016). New insights into the quality characteristics of milk from Modenese breed compared with Italian Friesian. Ital. J. Anim. Sci., 15: 559–567. Pires P., Fernandes É., Vilarinho M., Barros M., Ferreira R., Carneiro L., Almeida G., Vaz-Velho M.V. (2003). Comparison of milk from two different cow breeds Barrosã and Frísia. Electron. J. Environ

, 2071-2080. doi: 10.3168/ jds.2012-6092. Božiková M, Hlaváč P (2013): Temperature and storing time influence on selected physical properties of milk and acidophilus milk. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 61, 1589-1595. Brodziak A (2012): Gelling properties and texture of gels obtained from whey proteins derived from milk of different cow breeds. ZYWNOSC. Nauka, Technologia, Jakosc, 19, 161-174. doi: 10.15193/zntj/2012/83/161-174. (in Polish) Chen S, Bobe G, Zimmerman S, Hammond EG, Luhman CM, Boylston TD, Beitz DC (2004

Wet 60: 46-49. Deeth HC (2006): Lipoprotein lipase and lipolysis in milk. Int Dairy J 16: 555-562. Ferlay A, Martin B, Pradel P, Coulon JB, Chilliard Y (2006): Influence of grass-based diets on milk fatty acid composition and milk lipolytic system in Tarentaise and Montbeliarde cow breeds. J Dairy Sci 89: 4026-4041. Fetrow J, Stewart S, Eicker S, Farnsworth R, Bey R (2000): In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting Mastitis: An economic consideration. National Mastitis Council, Verona USA, May 1-3, pp. 3-47. Frelich J, Šlachta M, Kobes M (2010): Reasons for the culling

physiological effects. Int. Dairy J., 2006, 16, 1347-1361. Ferlay A., Martin B., Pradel P., Coulon J. B., Chilliard Y., Influence of grass-based diets on milk fatty acid composition and milk lipolytic system in Tarentaise and Montbéliarde cow breeds. J. Dairy Sci., 2006, 89, 4026-4041. Field C. J., Blewett H. H., Proctor S., Vine D., Human health benefits of vaccenic acid. Appl. Pysiol. Nutr. Metab., 2009, 34, 979-991. Jaworski J., Kuncewicz A., Właściwości fizykochemiczne mleka. 2008, in : Mleczarstwo, vol. 1. (eds. S. Ziajka). Wyd. UWM, Olsztyn, Poland, p. 53 (in Polish