attack individuals and organisations advocating secular values in the country. Understanding of Islamists’ anti-secular narrative will also help in producing a counter-narrative. The timing of this analysis is also appropriate because the Government of Pakistan has implement its strategy on countering violent extremism under ‘National Action Plan-2015’ and the task of producing the counter-narrative is assigned to the National Counter-Terrorism Authority (NACTA). Particularly, the analysis will be useful to scholars and policymakers focussing on a counter-narrative for
This paper unfolds around an empirical experiment, which aimed to reveal the meaning of industrial culture and place attachment of local inhabitants of Chemnitz. The central argument of the article is that industrial culture is usually understood in a historicizing and aestheticizing way, fuelled by the possibilities to valorise the legacies of the age of industrialization and its persistent artefacts and structures for marketing or musealization purposes. This frequently observable urban strategy neglects the memories, experiences and emotions of local inhabitants, and thus fails to support positive identification processes with connection to the industrial past of a specific place. This paper elaborates a conceptual definition of industrial culture as a complex approach with tangible and intangible dimensions, various temporal layers and multiple, sometimes controversial narratives. It discusses the role of industrial culture for regional and local image building and place related identity formation and demonstrates – reporting from an empirical experiment–, how individual counter-narratives can be detected, visualized and transferred and thus can increase reflexivity of society and support regional identity processes.
Paradoxes in being ‘at ease’ with diversity in a Copenhagen district
This article critically discusses conviviality, a concept increasingly used to denote unproblematic encounters with diversity. It is examined how conviviality has travelled in the literature, at times acquiring utopian and normative dimensions. Inconsistencies are demonstrated in the literature with regard to whether conviviality is elaborated as fundamental or ‘small’/local, overarching or counter-narrative, harmonious or (also) conflictual, unpredictable or designable, descriptive or normative and universal or particular. Conviviality is then applied analytically to interviews conducted in Copenhagen, using a resident-driven park as a case. The analysis demonstrates how a conviviality lens invites certain attentions whilst restricting others, such as re-production of majoritised norms, power and inequalities, proximity/distance and affective ambivalence. Finally, drawbacks and utility of conviviality as an analytical concept are evaluated.
Rewriting Pre-Existing Narratives in Sofi Oksanen’s Purge
Anna Estera Mrozewicz
The article offers a discussion of Sofi Oksanen’s novel Purge, focusing on the book’s strategy of evoking stereotypical narratives about Eastern Europe, such as the (postcommunist) fallen woman and (Russian) return home narratives, as well as related intertexts, primarily Lukas Moodysson’s film Lilya 4-ever. I argue that Oksanen constructs the plot around clichés in order to challenge them in a subversive fashion, first and foremost, in the name of recuperating the notion of Home. Related to locality and the feeling of being at-home, where the wholeness of the (national) subject is possible, ‘home’ is staged as an alternative to stereotypes, associated with transnational travel and the apparatus of colonization. A significant counter-narrative embedded in the novel - and hitherto rarely discussed - is the exilic perspective with its idealization of the lost and imagined home(land). In Purge, this is mediated through the main character’s postmemory. By means of a postexilic narrative, home is reconfigured as a ‘third space’ - neither fully ideal and (ethnically) pure nor adhering to the aforementioned stereotypical narratives. The positive valorisation of home, despised by some critics as simplistic and conservative, does not prevent movement and dislocation from being included in the new experience of home(land) emerging from the post-Soviet condition.
In this paper I assess how Guy Vanderhaeghe’s early fiction criticizes the class-based and civil movements of post-1960s Saskatchewan through the recurring character of Ed. The protagonist of “Man Descending” and “Sam, Soren, and Ed” from Man Descending, the uncollected “He Scores! He Shoots!” and the novel My Present Age, Ed both condemns and epitomizes the contaminated and seductive gestures of the movements’ influences and enterprises. Vanderhaeghe deploys layers of social criticism: the first comments on the new urban progressive generation—the BMW socialists—while another manifests a counter-criticism that comments on those who challenge social progress, questioning their motives and the credibility of their critique. But what is a BMW socialist? A sociopolitical chameleon hiding behind pretense? Ed describes such a creature as a former “nay-sayer and boycotter” who “intended to dedicate his life to eternal servitude in a legal-aid clinic,” but then “affluence did him in” and now “his ass [is] cupped lovingly in the contoured leather seats of his BMW” (Man Descending 237–38). Vanderhaeghe’s early works criticize the contemporary middle class and progressivist movements of the second half of the twentieth century through this sociopolitical rogue—who in turn becomes a post-rogue. For Ed is ironically undercut by a counter-narrative that is often sub-textual, resulting in a fascinating appraisal of social ignorance, immobility, and unproductivity rather than of any specific ideology.
Edward Said was the quintessential intellectual of the last quarter of the twentieth century. Commonly celebrated as the founding figure of postcolonialism, his critical oeuvre spans varied terrain. The very strength of his critique lies in these diverse tributaries of thought. Crossing borders and boundaries incessantly, Said’s intellectual project celebrates the culture of resistance while opposing doctrinaire rhetoric. The paper tries to journey along the multifarious “margins” of discourses that crop up in Said. “In-between” spaces have to be investigated for their radical potential, while daring to “transgress” has its own dangers. Said unmasks the unholy nexus between knowledge and power in the mapping of the “Orient” that abetted the colonial enterprise. His contrapuntal readings of literary texts reveal the ubiquitous presence of imperial empire. Consequently, voices from the margins spur counter narratives and “writing back” in the postcolonial condition. Intellectuals in exile tend to be “marginal” and this location helps in looking at the two or even three sides of an issue. Questions of identity, selfhood, nationality, politics, memory, history, representation, geography, homeland, anxieties of influence are dealt with in the paper. The intertwining of the personal and the political occurs in Said. “Memory” is the only hope for resuscitating a “lost world” and battling the accompanying sense of “loss” and “despair” infused in both individuals and communities alike. The paper tries to address how “border crossing” and the “coalescing of margins” create an interdisciplinary breadth in Said, which resist categorization. The “centre/margin” binary is problematized by acknowledging the presence of “many voices,” “polyphony” being a favourite concept of Said. Music gave to him metaphors for human emancipation, while “transgression” was vital. His acknowledgement and assimilation of fellow critics is also mentioned. Beyond enunciating insider-outsider distinctions, Said tried to cultivate knowledge as a bridge between different interests and locations.
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