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Abstract

This article outlines a framework for formal description, justification and evaluation in development of architectures for large-scale statistical production systems. Following an introduction of the main components of the framework, we consider four related issues: (1) Use of some simple schematic models for survey quality, cost, risk, and stakeholder utility to outline several groups of questions that may inform decisions on system design and architecture. (2) Integration of system architecture with models for total survey quality (TSQ) and adaptive total design (ATD). (3) Possible use of concepts from the Generic Statistical Business Process Model (GSBPM) and the Generic Statistical Information Model (GSIM). (4) The role of governance processes in the practical implementation of these ideas.

Intelligence traditions. They must make their choices based on the expected perfor- mance, cost and risk of autonomous IoT solutions that would operate without human oversight. For example, automated manufacturing, predictive maintenance and security IoT solutions may be cautiously fully automated. However, human-oriented applications, such as smart retail, could still maintain human oversight. Beacon tech- nology and eye tracking devices can optimize the place- ment of merchandise, and salespeople equipped with mobile devices can leverage the personalized information

Cave S., Mazzarotta B.: Preliminary risk analysis for LNG tankers approaching a maritime terminal, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2009, 22, 634–638. [5] de Lapparent, M.: Attitude towards risk of time loss in travel activity and air route choices, Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems: Technology, Planning, and Operations, 2010, 14, 166–178. [6] Glickman T.S., Erkut E., Zschocke M.S.: The cost and risk impacts of rerouting railroad shipments of hazardous materials, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2007, 39, 1015–1025. [7] Haber E

nonsampling error analyses. Also, from a broader perspective, formalised methodological approaches (based on the ATD paradigm and generally relying on some architectural features) are important in ensuring that statistical agencies have robust structures through which to address the abovementioned “flux and change.” These robust structures can support both development of additional statistical products that meet stakeholders’ current needs, and improvement in the balance among quality, cost and risk in statistical production processes. This special issue of JOS is intended

-Based Systems. No. 58, pp. 66–74. doi: 10.1016/j.knosys.2013.07.003. 37. Qi, J. (2009). The Threat of Shareholder Intervention and Firm Innovation. - New York Law Journal. 38. Saaty, L. (2013). Theory and Applications of the Analytic Network Process: Decision Making with Benefits, Opportunities, Cost and Risks. ISBN 978-1-8886031-6-3 (e-book). 39. Secchi, D. (2011). Extendable Rationality: Understanding Decision Making in Organizations. - Springer Science & Business Media, p. 180. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7542-3. 40. Stein, L. C. D., Wang, C. C. Y (2016). Economic Uncertainty

-of-mouth, delays and supply shortages. Additionally, as demand for FFVs is growing significantly due to changes in diets ( Reynolds et al., 2014 ), incorporating such changes and their consequences on related delivery processes is of interest. By having such knowledge available and integrating it in model-driven DSSs, an improvement in service quality as well as a reduction in logistics costs and food waste can be achieved. 4.2.2 Cost and risk-sharing mechanisms to mitigate disruptions A further point of interest is the development of supply chain coordination mechanisms

-based motivations can increase and strengthen positive associations with the corporate brand in the consumers’ minds. Reshoring in the luxury goods sector seems to be the result of not only a cost-and-risk analysis [ Larsen and Pedersen, 2014 ; Benstead et al., 2017 ] but also a smart long-term marketing strategy with patriotic and sustainable implications amply communicated to the public. In the luxury goods sector, reshoring can serve as the restoration of luxury home base production, which is still perceived as a vital value for many luxury consumers. The country of origin

introduced, 74% of surveyed employers knew that employees must consent to trial periods and 70% knew that employees retain protection against discrimination and harassment ( DOL, 2010 ); knowledge about trial periods is likely to be even higher among the 59% of firms that report using them ( MBIE, 2014 ). Despite trial periods not being a “get out of jail free” card for employers, survey and interview evidence shows that employers view trial period policy as substantially reducing the cost and risk of dismissal, and therefore of taking on a new employee ( DOL, 2010 ; DOL