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Introduction Across scholarly and popular discourse it is often implied that the media landscape, in all its diversity, constitutes a venue where dispersed members of the “global village” would come together in moments of cosmopolitan cultivation. Hannerz ( 1990 : 249) and Hebdige (1990) argued, respectively, that cosmopolitanism was now part of everyday experience, because of the “implosive power of the media”, or, because other cultures now come visit us on our screens. Such thinking is echoed in notions that media render “the global” “ready

’, in Turow, J. & Kavanaugh, A. (eds.) The Wired Homestead: An MIT Sourcebook on the Internet and the Family. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. DiMaggio, P. (2004) ‘Gender, Networks, and Cultural Capital’, Preface in Poetics, 32: 99-103. Elvestad, E. & Blekesaune, A. (2008) ‘Newspaper Readers in Europe. A Multilevel Study of Individual and National Differences’, European Journal of Communication, 23(4): 425-447. Elvestad, E. (2006) ‘Lokal, kosmopolitt eller frakoblet? En analyse av stedstilknytning og bruk av lokalaviser’ [Locals, cosmopolitans or disconnected? An

.), A Companion to Contemporary Practical Philosophy . Oxford, Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers. Hampton, Jean. 2007. The Intrinsic Worth of Persons. Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy . Fernham, Daniel (ed.). New York: CUP. Hutchings, Kimberly. 2011. What is Orientation in Thinking? On the Question of Time and Timeliness in Cosmopolitical Thought. Constellations 18(2). 190-204. Kleingeld, Pauline. 2012. Kant and Cosmopolitanism. The Philosophical Ideal of World Citizenship . Cambridge: CUP. Kumm, Mattias. 2015. Taking ‘the dark side


In the first part of the twentieth century, some members of the French- or Chinese-educated but indigenous religious, economic, and political elite in southern Vietnam (Cochin-China) intensively engaged in spirit-medium practices. Many of them set up or joined the new Cao Đài religion and its spirit-medium séances. Integrating in their pantheon religious figures from Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism, and even Catholicism, Cao Đài leaders deliberately challenged the orthodoxies at that time, tactically undermining the local religious elites, but also proposing a universal theological redemption and moral reform through the publication of their new set of spirit medium messages. Very quickly after the creation of Caodaism in 1926, various groups branched off, borrowing and adapting this reformed and orthodox posture within the Cao Đài community itself. While the Cao Đài canon may be well-known to scholars, Cao Đài community journals have yet to be examined in detail, although they often served as incubators for the Cao Đài quest for orthodoxy and a modern path to salvation. Based on archival studies and field research trips to the relevant areas, this paper aims to show how collective and individual actors of these Cao Đài groups have mobilised institutional, rhetorical, ideological, media-based, and other resources to assure and legitimise their authority. Simultaneously, we will see how the Cao Đài religion emerged from very unique kinds of “redemptive societies,” combining both Western and Eastern esotericism to articulate new Asian expressions of orthodoxy, universal values, and cosmopolitanism.


The paper investigates into the specific features of the residents living in the metropolitan areas (MAs) in Poland. Basing on the statistical data and survey conducted in the two Polish MAs we draw conclusions on the spatial and political behaviour of metropolitan residents and on their territorial identity. The results show that a fair share of metropolitan residents live in a scale wider then their home municipality. Moreover some citizens (especially those who migrated to suburbs recently and those with higher education) reveal stronger spatial identity with the whole metropolitan area then with their home municipality. Delocalisation is also reflected in the lack of interest in municipal politics and low trust in suburb municipal politicians, while their interest in general politics remains on a high level.


During recent years, considerable attention has been paid to the negative portrayal of the African continent in the media of the so-called ‘global North’. Significantly less focus has been put on how to actually represent Africa in the news as more than the site of catastrophes or in other ways than through sunshine stories of the ‘struggling but smiling African’. The present article argues that the lack of a wide range of different genres in the North’s mediated representations of Africa is problematic, because the ‘hard news’ we receive is deficient in information about the background and context of news event. The article looks into different cultural expressions such as film, television entertainment and literature to explore how they can play a role in illustrating the concept of ‘Africa’ as both diverse and multifaceted. It argues that opening the northern mediascape to more content from the south would serve as an important backdrop and help in understanding a variety of messages from the African continent.

References Bauman, Zygmunt. 2000. Savnetfellesskap. Oslo: Cappelen. Beck,Ulrich. 2006 [2004]. Cosmopolitan Vision. Cambridge: Polity Press. Burke, Edmund 2001 [1790]: Reflections on the Revolution in France (ed. J.D.C. Clark). Stanford: Stanford University Press. Gergen, Kenneth. 1991. The Saturated Self. New York: Basic Books. Giddens, Anthony. 1996 [1991].. Modernitet og selvidentitet. Selvet og samfundet under senmoderniteten. K0benhavn: Hans Reitzels Forlag. Kjsrstad, Jan. 2006 [1993]. Forf0reren. Oslo: Aschehoug. Lash, Scott & Jonathan Friedman

, But for What Tomorrow?: Some Moral Dilemmas of Humanitarian Aid, in Moore, J., ed, Hard Choices: Moral Dilemmas in Humanitarian Intervention . Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.: Maryland, USA. Appiah, K.A. (2006): Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers . Norton Publishing: New York. Azariadis, C. – Stachurski, J. (2004): Poverty Traps. Research Paper no. 913, Department of Economics, University of Melbourne. Prepared for Aghion, P. – Durlauf, S., eds), Handbook of Economic Growth. The University of Melbourne. Bellamy, A.J. (2011a): Global Politics

hand with the exploitation of exotic, peripheral locations, such as the Nordic ( Stougaard-Nielsen, 2016 ). Similarly, Anderson and colleagues (2012: 3) have argued that the current globalisation of crime fiction demonstrates that it trades in “exotic environments”, which bring the genre “into close proximity to travel writing”, revealing a genuine interest in other cultures or, perhaps, a less cosmopolitan “desire for a kind of cultural Disneyland”. A current fault line in the study of crime fiction as a transnational and transmedial genre, therefore, is to what

: Onderwijs, levensbeschouwing, en het publieke domein [Special issue: Education, worldview and the public square]. Pedagogiek, 33(2), 73-186. Nussbaum, M. (1994). Patriotism and cosmopolitanism. Boston Review, 19(5), 3-6. Papastephanou, M. (2013). Cosmopolitanism discarded: Martha Nussbaumís patriotic education and the inward-outward distinction. Ethics and Education, 8(2), 166-178. Taylor, C. (1996). Why democracy needs patriotism. In J. Cohen (Ed.), For love of country: Debating the limits of patriotism (pp. 119-121). Boston: Beacon Press. Van der Kooij, J. C., de Ruyter