Merhan M. Ragy, Fatma F. Ali and Nisreen D. M. Toni
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Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo, Bolanle Olubusola Iranloye and Oluseyi Abimbola Ogunsola
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Forouzan Sadeghimahalli, Homeira Zardooz and Ravieh Golchoobian
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Aksinia Lipatova, Azamat Kade, Artem Trofimenko, Viktor Ovsiannikov, Oleg Tcymbalov and Aleksandr Sidorenko
The aim of study is to analyze the tDCS influence on stress-induced disorders in rats with low stress sustainability and endurance. The animals with a low stress sustainability and endurance were divided into 3 groups: the comparison 1, the comparison 2 and the main. The control group consisted of intact rats. The rats of the comparison group 1 were subjected to orthostatic stress 24 hours after the 1st forced swimming test. The rats of the comparison group 2 and the main one were conducted the 2nd forced swimming test on the 7th day of the experiment, and 24 hours later they were subjected to the orthostatic stress. Rats of the main group got tDCS sessions after the 1st forced swimming test. The development of the orthostatic stress is accompanied by an increase in plasma content the following components: adrenaline by 88.9%, ACTH in 10.5 times, corticosterone by 70.1%, IL-1β by 178.2%, IL-6 in 6.7 times, IL-10 by 37.1% in comparison with intact animals. The usage of tDCS in rats with low stress sustainability and endurance increased the swimming duration by 47.7%. During the OS it was also accompanied by a decrease in plasma content: adrenaline in 1.4 times, ACTH in 8.2 times, corticosterone in 1.4 times, IL-1β in 1.5 times, IL-6 in 2.2 times, IL-10 in 1.2 times, relative to the comparison group 2. The obtained data showed the essential effect of tDCS on stress-related changes in the content of cytokines and hormones of blood.
Arijit Chakraborty, Deotima Sarkar, Priyanki Dey and Amar K. Chandra
Thiourea (thiophen-3-yl-acetic acid) is a well established antithyroid drug used for treating hyperactivity of the thyroid gland as it blocks the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in peripheral tissues. Human exposures to thiourea include contaminated drinking water and vegetables for its extensive use in fertilizers. Chronic thiourea exposure can cause thyroid dysfunction leading to redox imbalance. However, such effects on morphological, quantitative, functional and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) analysis of the adrenal gland are yet to be explored. The aim was to explore the effect of thiourea on structural and functional status of the adrenocortical region with special reference to the HPA axis. Control rats were fed a normal laboratory standardized diet whereas to experimental rats, thiourea at a dose of 0.3 mg/day/Kg body weight was administered orally, once every day for consecutive 28 days. Histology and histometry, including morphometry of the adrenal, adrenal ∆5 3β HSD and 17β HSD activity, LPO level and serum corticosterone profile were assessed. Statistical significance was studied by ‘Mann-Whitney U’ test at p<0.05. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the adrenocortical cells was found especially in the layer zona fasciculata (p=0.0027) and enhanced adrenal ∆5 3β HSD activity (p=0.0067) in comparison to that of the control. Increased lipid peroxidation (p=0.0054) and up-regulated corticosterone release (p=0.0064) through adrenocortical stress signalling pathway were also noted. Stereological analysis of the left adrenal gland showed significant increase in volume (p=0.0025) and mass of cells (p=0.0031) in adrenocortical region in comparison to that of control animals. This study concludes that thiourea, in addition to its antithyroidal activity, develops stress in the adrenal as evident by enhanced lipid peroxidation in the gland that in turn through the HPA axis causes hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adrenocortical cells to enhance synthesis and release of corticosterone secretion to counteract the stress developed under the influence of this potent chemical agent.
This study investigated the effect of adding extracts from selected herbs to water on alleviation of broiler stress associated with intensive production, and thus on improvement of welfare. In experimental groups (II, III and IV), alcoholic extracts from chamomile inflorescence (Matricaria
chamomilla L.), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) or from St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), respectively, were added to water drinkers (2 ml ∙ l-1 water) from 21 to 35 days of rearing for 5 h/day. Throughout the experiment, body weight, feed and water intake and number of dead birds were recorded once a week. At 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of rearing, blood was collected from 7 birds in each group to determine the levels of corticosterone, cholesterol, glucose, and the immunoglobulin complex. The response of birds to the herbal additives was positive. The herb extracts contributed to a decrease in cholesterol level and an increase in the level of the immunoglobulin complex in the blood. Supplementation of water with chamomile and St John’s wort extracts contributed to an increase in body weight, while the extracts from lemon balm and St John’s wort also had a positive effect on broiler survival. The results obtained indicate that out of the three herbs chosen for the experiment, St John’s wort extract proved the most efficient in relieving the body’s physiological response to stress, and thus in improving welfare.
Nataša Spasojević, Ljubica Gavrilović, Ivan Kovačević and Slađana Dronjak
Endocrinological and Behavioural Effects of Chronic Fluxilan Administration in Rats
Chronic stress induces changes in the neuroendocrine and neuronal system, including elevation of catecholamines and corticosterone (CORT) levels, and could be an important factor in initial depression. Antidepressants affect monoaminergic neurotransmission and modulate central neuropeptides involved in the coordination of stress response and the control of HPA axis activity. We studied the effects of chronic treatment with fluxilan, a selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake, in unstressed controls and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats, on behaviour and plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). CUMS did not affect plasma NA, A and ACTH, but elevated plasma CORT content. Plasma concentration of catecholamines after fluxilan administration was significantly increased in control and CUMS group. On the other hand, fluxilan expressed no effect on plasma ACTH and CORT concentrations in control animals, but decreased ACTH and CORT levels in CUMS animals. Behaviourally, fluxilan treated animals displayed enhanced anxiety. The results demonstrate that the anxiogenic effects of chronic fluxilan administration are similar to those reported by many other studies. The findings described here suggest that elevated plasma catecholamines may contribute to an adverse effect of this drug on cardiovascular parameters during antidepressant therapy.
Gian Nicola Frongia, Tanja Peric, Giovanni Leoni, Valentina Satta, Fiammetta Berlinguer, Marco Muzzeddu, Alberto Prandi, Salvatore Naitana and Antonella Comin
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Katarzyna Ognik, Iwona Sembratowicz, Anna Czech, Ewelina Kulak and Malwina Merska
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Florina Perčinić-Popovska, Vladimir Ajdžanović, Suzana Dinevska-Kofkarovska, Maja Jordanova, Svetlana Trifunović, Branka Šošić-Jurjević and Verica Milošević
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