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Abstract

Introduction. Stress can be defined as a physiological and psychic response to external stimuli (stressors) or as a relationship between the body and the environment that can affect the body in a negative, positive or neutral way.

Aim. The aim of this paper was to investigate the causes of stress among students, and to identify methods of coping with it in relation to sociodemographic determinants.

Material and methods. The number of 117 nursing students were examined using two standardized tools: Distress Thermometer and Mini Cope Sheet.

Results. Intensity of stress among nursing students amounted to 6.3, which was higher than the average. The causes of stress included: worrying, anxiety, fatigue, work, school. The most frequently chosen strategies for coping with stress are active coping, seeking emotional and instrumental support.

Conclusions. 1)Intensity of stress among nursing students was higher than the average and was equal to 6.3. 2) Students chose constructive methods of coping with it, i.e. active coping, trying to overcome the situation, searching for emotional and instrumental support. 3) The age of the respondents impacted the choice of the strategy of „cessation of activities” and the cause of stress – „relationship with a partner” and marital status correlated with occurrence of symptom of stress - „diarrhea”.

Introduction Sports activity is full of difficult and stressful situations. Even athletes with long-term experience often face problems with emotional regulation, coping with stress and with very strong pre-competition emotions such as anxiety. Thus, young, adolescent athletes seem to be even more prone to these problems. Adolescence is a period of intensive changes and remarkable sensitivity to social assessment, which may lead young people to feel social anxiety. Maturing individuals shape their self-image and the image of the world upon their previous life and

. Coping: pitfalls and promise. Annu Rev Psychol 2004; 55: 745-74. 24. Hampel P, Petermann F. Perceived stress, coping, and adjustment in adolescents. J Adolesc Health 2006; 38: 409-15. 25. Guszkowska M. Physical fitness as a resource in coping with stress among high school students. J Sport Med Phys Fit 2005; 45: 105-11. 26. Kamtsios S, Filaktakidou A. The relation between coping strategies, self-efficiency and physical activity participation as revealed through a study held among Ioannina University students. Inquir Sport Phys Educ 2008; 6: 303-10. 27. Phye GD

, Potembska E. [Psychometric properties of Eating Disorders and Self-image Survey Questionnaire in Men (KBZOM II)]. Curr Probl Psychiatry. 2012;13(1):18-24. Polish. 19. Januszewska E. [Coping with Stress Questionnaire. Diagnostic value and test results involving adolescents]. In: Oleś P, editor. [Selected issues from clinical psychology and personality. Diagnostic methods in research involving children and adolescents]. Lublin: Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL; 2005. p. 91-124. Polish. 20. Januszewski A. [Narcissism Questionnaire. Diagnostic value in the light of results of research

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to provide an answer to the question of whether, and what, differences in stress coping strategies could be found between university students at risk and those not at risk of mobile phone addiction. The study included 408 students aged 19 to 28 years. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mobile Phone Addiction Assessment Questionnaire (in Polish, Kwestionariusz do Badania Uzależnienia od Telefonu Komórkowego, KBUTK) by Pawłowska and Potembska, and the Coping with Stress Questionnaire (SVF) by Janke, Erdmann, and Boucsein, translated into Polish by Januszewska. The results of the study showed that individuals at risk of mobile phone addiction were more likely to cope with stress by seeking substitute gratification, reacting with resignation, passivity, dejection and hopelessness, blaming themselves, pitying themselves and looking for support. They also tended to ruminate over their suffering, withdraw from social interactions, react with aggression and/or take to drinking.

Abstract

Introduction. Social networking sites are virtual online communities, where users can design personal profiles available for public assessment, interact with friends, and meet with others, based on shared interests. SNS (social networking sites) have been defined as a “global consumer phenomenon” because they have been experiencing a sharp increase in popularity and use over the last decade. SNS websites, such as Facebook, are becoming increasingly popular, however, little is known about psychosocial variables, which are risk factors for excessive use of these websites.

Aim. The aim of the work was to characterize personality traits (self-image characteristics, ways of coping with stress and aggression intensity) of youth who have a profile on a social networking site.

Material and methods. The study included a total of 590 individuals from 16 to 18 years of age. Among the subjects, a group of 51 people without a profile was identified and 539 – with a profile on a social networking site. The group of teenagers was examined by means of statistical methods: a socio-demographic survey by the authors’ own design, H. G. Gough and A. B. Heilbrun’s Adjective Check List (ACL), Stress Coping Questionnaire (SCQ) constructed by W. Janke, G. Erdmann, K. W. Kallus, in the Polish language compilation by E. Januszewska, Buss-Durkee Hostility – Gild Inventory, developed in Polish by Choynowski.

Results. Statistically significant differences were found in terms of self-image features, ways of coping with stress and activity displayed on the Internet between the youth who had and did not have a profile on the social networking site.

Conclusions. Significantly more young people who have a profile on a social networking site share their personal data with strangers met through the Internet, use internet services and make purchases online, compared to the youth who do not have this profile. Young people with a profile on a social portal are characterized by greater timidity, difficulties in coping with stress and everyday tasks, less perseverance, entrepreneurship, effectiveness in the implementation of tasks, less self-confidence, less autonomy, responsibility and tolerance in comparison with young people who do not have a profile. Young people who have a social media profile are more likely to turn to other people in a stressful situation to request support and advice.

Summary

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the range of socio-demographic variables, selected clinical variables, temperament and character traits, coping with stress strategies and the level of aggression in alcohol addicts with or without a history of suicide attempt(s).

Methods: The study involved 90 people addicted to alcohol, treated in inpatient alcohol dependence treatment program. In order to collect data on socio - demographic variables and selected clinical variables, a self-made questionnaire was used. The severity of alcohol dependence was verified using the MAST and SADD scales. Characteristics of temperament and character were examined with the TCI questionnaire. The BPAQ and COPE questionnaires were used to examine the level of aggression and styles of coping with stress.

Results:Out of 90 subjects with alcohol dependence syndrom, 20% had attempted suicide in the past. The respondents with a history of suicide attempts were statistically significantly younger, were characterized by a younger age of alcohol drinking initiation and the initiation of regular alcohol drinking, and a greater severity of alcohol dependence in the MAST and SADD scales. A significantly larger percentage of respondents who had attempted suicide inflicted self-injury in the past, used other psychoactive substances as well as hypnotics and sedatives. The subjects with a suicide attempt in the interview obtained statistically significantly higher scores in terms of the level of aggression, harm avoidance and self-directedness, and more often used the style of coping with stress based on avoidance and accepting the situation.

Conclusions: The obtained results correspond with data available in the literature and may provide a foundation for theoretical models explaining the phenomenon of suicidal behavior in alcohol addicts as well as for suicide prevention programs in this group of patients.

Abstract

Stress among naval mariners is caused by a new environment in the form of climate, noise, defective food, diseases or injuries, and others. Stress is aggravated by the lack of information, conflicts between mariners, changing decisions of superiors. The strongest stressor military action is the fear of losing life or health.

The stress leads to disturbances in the neuronal transmission and reduction in CNS cells, weakening the processes of neurogenesis. Its complications are a social problem for soldiers returning from humanitarian and military missions and their families.

Mariners cope with stress individually in the area of operations of the armed forces. When difficult situations overwhelm the possibility of compensating psyche, there are algorithms for psychological support. The basis for coping with stress is permanent, social support. The next level concerns support group sessions, involving soldiers after a traumatic event or completing a task. Sessions take place in a quiet place, after the cessation of activities. We are talking about defusing and debriefing technique. The highest level of coping with stress refers to psychotherapy. At first, in the field conditions, and then in the form of hospitalization in the country. Clinical forms of combat stress is post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress syndrome, personality change as a result of the disaster experience, dissociative disorders, operational fatigue, DESNOS. The treatment of these disorders involves cognitive behavioral oriented trauma therapy and medical therapy with the use of SSRIs, SNRIs, and antipsychotics.

In the twenty-first century a inquiry into combat stress creates a tight prevention of its complications.

among fi ve pressures of lawyers and legal professionals. Majority of lawyers and legal professional were adapted problem solving oriented coping strategy. Th erefore, the social support from peer, friend, family member etc. was also widely used coping strategy by lawyers and legal professionals. Our fi ndings well demonstrate that awareness of occupational stress in law industry has been raised Keywords: Lawyer’s  occupational stress, job satisfaction, sources of pressure, work locus of control, coping with stress ICLR, 2015, Vol. 15, No. 1. © Palacký

Summary

Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between strategies of coping with stress caused by participating in sport competitions and the results of those competitions, as well as to differentiate the applied coping strategies according to the practiced sport discipline (tennis and alpine skiing).

Material and methods: The study encompassed 83 university students (39 women and 44 men) who were participating in the Polish University Championships in tennis (n = 32) and alpine skiing (n = 51). The research was based on the Coping Inventory for Competitive Sports (CICS) questionnaire and was adapted to Polish conditions by the authors of this study. The results achieved during the competition were also recorded during the study.

Results: Possibly due to the nature of their sport, the tennis players used coping actions to a greater extent than the alpine skiers, regardless of the nature of the action. The application of task-focused strategies and the lower use of emotion-focused and avoidance strategies allowed the athletes to achieve higher results during the competition.

Conclusions: Task-focused strategies should be developed in order to improve the competitive results of athletes. Taking the situational nature of the coping strategies into consideration, coping strategies can be designed and modified to improve the achieved results.