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Abstract

The present article reports on a case study that focuses, comparatively, on the extent to which Romania’s Prime Minister Adrian Năstase and UK’s Prime Minister Tony Blair reveal their intentions and thoughts in their investment speeches, by the use of the personal pronouns I and we. The number of occurrences of each of the two first person pronouns and the way in which they are used will be considered in an analysis that is both quantitative and qualitative. The overall aim of the comparative approach is to highlight how democracy is seen in the cases scrutinized, based on the activation by the speakers of the principle of cooperation in oral communication.

Abstract

The research is concerned with contrasting regularities vs. ambiguities in identity and quality face construction by Oscar winners in their acceptance speeches. The concept of “face” is viewed here from evaluative, socio-contextual, and interactive perspectives. The research focuses on determining the identity (social) and quality (personal) faces of the awardees as specified by the sets of the corresponding role invariants.

University Press: Cambridge, Harvard, 1989. 16. Hansen, H. Theories of Presumptions and Burdens of Proof. OSSA Conference Archive, 2003. 17. Kauffeld, F. J. Grice without the Cooperative Principle. OSSA Conference Archive, 2001. 18. Kauffeld, F. J. The ordinary practice of presuming and presumption with special attention to veracity and the burden of proof. In. F. H. v. Eemeren, J. A. Blair, C. A. Williard, A. F. Snoeck Henkemans (eds.), Anyone Who has a View: Theoretical Contributions to the Study of Argumentation, Kluwer Academic Publications: Dordrecht, 2003, pp.132

Abstract

The subject of vagueness is discussed in analytical philosophy but from a linguistic point of view it is rather overlooked. We approached the issue of the concept definition and tried to find the cross point of two fields which is found in approach to vagueness using or violating of cooperative principle. The aim of the paper is to specify the criteria for the evaluation of vagueness, determine the motivation to use vagueness, defining its potential sources and describing the language means that typically make vagueness in persuasive texts specifically in politically oriented speeches. Based on the results of qualitative analysis, the occurrences of vagueness were found at lexical units’ level and semantic-pragmatic units. We have therefore focused on the linguistic manifestations of vagueness that is the appearance of evaluative adjectives, epistemic particles, metaphors, abstract word etc. Quantitative analysis of these linguistic categories has proven to be inadequate because not all of these occurrences can be labelled as vague. For this reason, we have been applied four types of vagueness based on violation of conversational maxima, which offers and partly clarifies conceptual difficulties and provide instructions for detecting vagueness in the text.

, since Cooperative Principle appeared for the first time (Grice, 1975), it did not get mass attention from researchers. However, it does not mean that this theory was completely ignored. Hawley (2002), for example, clarifies the difference between what is saying and what is implicating. He points out that saying has semantic implication, which means the meaning of the utterance is closely related to the meaning of the words construct the sentence while implicating has a pragmatic meaning, which means that the interpretation of the utterance is beyond the meaning

Social Interaction . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 56-289. Conti, D.J. and Camras, L.A., 1984. Children’s understanding of conversational principles. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology , vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 456-463. Dascal, M., 1999. La pragmática y las intenciones comunicativas. In: M. Dascal, ed. Filosofía del Lenguaje II. Pragmática . Madrid: Trotta, pp. 21-45. Davies, B.L., 2007. Grice’s cooperative principle: meaning and rationality. Journal of Pragmatics , vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 2308-2331. Fernández-Urquiza, M., Díaz Martínez, F., Moreno

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. 3–16. Wysocka, Maria. 1989. FL teachers vs. FL learners at the university level: A presentation of student views. 22. 119–129. Yagi, Sane M. & Shehdeh Fareh. 2004. Parallel conjunctive relations in EFL. 40. 257–268. Yang, Yonglin. 1996. The cooperative principle and the functional transition in English verbs. 30. 97–105. Yang, Yonglin. 1999. A functional-stratificational analysis of what-clauses for pedagogical grammar. 34. 267–289. Yusuf, Yisa Kehinde. 1997. “To propose is human”: Eliminating sexist language from English proverbs. 32. 169–178. Zabrocki