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Assessment of Content of Fat and Tocopherols in Seeds of Amaranthus in Relation to Diversified Fertilization with Macroelements

This study is based on the field experiment carried out in the years 2007-2008, on an individual farmer's field in Bodaczow, near Zamosc. The aim of the experiment was to determine the influence of different dosages of NPK on the content of fat and homologous tocopherols in the seeds of two varieties of amaranth: Rawa and Aztek. The experiment was started on brown soil made from loess, with high content of P, K and Mg, and slightly acidic reaction (pH in l mol KCl·dm-3 - 5.8). The experiment was started with split-plot method in three repetitions, and involved: two varieties of amaranthus (Rawa and Aztek), and 4 variants of fertilization with macroelements NPK (kg · ha-1) (1 - object without any fertilization, 2 - 70 N, 50 P2O5, 50 K2O; 3 - 90 N, 60 P2O5, 60 K2O; 4 - 130 N, 70 P2O5, 70 K2O). The content of fat was marked in the seed with Soxhlet's method, and α-, β-, γ- and Δ-tocopherol with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The study reveals that the amount of accumulated fat in the seeds of amaranthus largely depended on the variety of the plant and variant of fertilization with macroelements. Significantly high content of fat in the seeds was found at the fourth (the highest) level of fertilization with NPK. Higher content of fat in the seeds was determined in Aztec variety than Rawa. The varieties of amaranthus varied considerably in the content of: α-, β-tocopherol and their total amount. Higher content of α-tocopherol and its higher total amount was found in the seeds of Aztek variety, rather than Rawa. The seeds of Rawa variety had significantly more β-tocopherol than Aztek variety. Fertilization with growing dosages of NPK had a significant, positive influence only on the amount of α-tocopherol and its total amount.


The aim of the experiment was to determine the impact of UV-C stimulation of tubers, immersion of potato sticks in water, and a frying fat type on the content of fat in dry mass of French fries. Tests were carried out on Innovator tubers which is one of the most often used cultivator in production of French fries by the European and Polish companies. Radiation of potato tubers with ultraviolet in band C were performed with the use of the original stand for stimulation of biological material with electro-magnetic radiation. A statistical analysis of the obtained results of tests indicates that stimulation of tubers and a type of frying fat had a statistically significant impact on the fat content in dry mass of French fries.

. Zoot.. Sup!., 17: 513-516. Pieszka M.. Kulisa M. (2005). Magnesium content in mares' nnlk and growth parameters in then- foal. J. Elemen.. Supp. 1, 10: SI. Pieszka M., Kulrsa M.. Luszczynski J., Dlugosz B., Jackowski M. (2004 a). The effect of selected factors on the content of fat. protein and lactose in the milk of Arabian mares (m Polish). Zesz. Nauk. Prz. Hod.. 72: 235-241. Pieszka M., K ul is a M.. Luszczynski J..Dlugosz B., Jackowski M. (2004 b). The ef­fect of the content of fat. protein and lactose in Arabian mares nnlk on growth late of then foals (m Polish


The aim of the study was to describe the differences in composition, physical and technological properties of raw milk as affected by breed of cattle, season and type of feeding. The study was conducted from June 2005 to February 2007 on bulk milk samples (BMS) collected from 8 commercial dairy herds consisting of Czech Fleckvieh (CF, 4 herds) and Holstein (H, 4 herds) dairy cows. Half of herds in each breed was grazing (G) during summer season while the other half was not (N). Samples were collected regularly two times in winter (W) and two times in summer (S) period resulting in a total of 64 bulk milk samples (BMS) examined. Milk yield in CF (5385.50 kg) was lower (P<0.05) than in H (7015.15 kg). Milk fat in CF was higher (P<0.05) than in H breed being 3.9 and 3.72 g/100 g, respectively. CF cows had higher (P<0.05) content of crude protein, casein, true protein and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) than H. Content of fat, crude protein, casein, true protein and whey protein was lower (P<0.05) in summer (S) than in winter (W). Milk yield in grazing herds (G, 5197.50 kg) was lower (P<0.05) than in non-grazing herds (N, 7203.75 kg). Content of fat was higher (P<0.05) in G (3.89 g/100 g) than in N (3.73 g/100 g). Concentration of lactose, urea, crude protein, casein, true protein, whey protein was lower (P<0.05) in G than in N. In conclusion, the Czech Fleckvieh breed had a lower milk yield but produced milk with higher concentration of the main milk components than the Czech population of the Holstein breed. Large seasonal variations were determined in concentrations of the main milk components. The most pronounced changes in milk composition were caused by the type of feeding with a clear decrease in milk yield and content of lactose and all studied protein fractions and higher content of fat in grazing herds compared to non-grazing herds.


Introduction: Polish oilseed and flaxseed collection is a source of genotypes containing very high amounts of α-linolenic acid. Objective: The objective of the study is to test the seeds for the fat content and fatty acids composition in the oil pressed from the 9 tested accessions of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Our goal is to promote the Polish flax collection, which seeds are unique as one of the richest sources of α-linolenic acid. Methods: Assays to determine the content of fat and fatty acids composition in linseed oil were performed at the IHAR-PIB Biochemical Laboratory in Poznań. The fat content was determined by infrared analysis (calibration performed on the basis of seed sample at IHAR-PIB in Poznań) by means of a NIRS 6500 spectrophotometer with a reflection detector within the range of 400-2500 nm. The composition of fatty acids was determined by means of a method proposed by Byczyńska and Krzymański (1969), based on gas chromatography of methyl esters of fatty acids contained in linseed oil. The following varieties of flax were investigated: Tabare (INF00111), Szegedi 30 (INF00427), Olin (INF 00444), Redwood 65 (INF00523), Dufferin (INF00540), AC Mc Duff (INF00648), Alfonso Inta (INF00683), Olinette (INF00687), Royale (INF00689). Results: The content of α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3) in evaluated genotypes of flax ranged from 48.9 (Royale) to 59.9% (Alfonso Inta). Content of linoleic acid (LA, C18:2) in evaluated genotypes of flax ranged from 12.4 (Tabare) to 17.1% (AC Mc Duff). The content of oleic acid (OA, C18:1) of 9 accession of flax ranged from 17.1 (Alfonso Inta) to 26.7% (Royale). The content of stearic acid in evaluated genotypes of flax ranged from 2.3 (Alfonso Inta) to 5.0% (Tabare, Szegedi 30) and the content of palmitic acid ranged from 4.7 (Dufferin) to 6.0% (Olin). The content of fat ranged from 42.7 (Olin) to 52.0% (AC Mc Duff). The fatty acid ratio n-6/n-3 ranged from 0.23/1 (Tabare) to 0.32/1 (AC Mc Duff).


In recent years a growing demand for ratite meat, including ostrich, emu, and rhea has been observed all over the world. However, consumers as well as the meat industry still have limited and scattered knowledge about this type of meat, especially in the case of emu and rhea. Thus, the aim of the present review is to provide information on technological and nutritional properties of ostrich, emu, and rhea meat, including carcass composition and yields, physicochemical characteristics, and nutritive value. Carcass yields and composition among ratites are comparable, with the exception of higher content of fat in emu. Ostrich, emu, and rhea meat is darker than beef and ratite meat acidification is closer to beef than to poultry. Ratite meat can be recognised as a dietetic product mainly because of its low level of fat, high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), favourable n6/n3 ratio, and high iron content in comparison with beef and chicken meat. Ratite meat is also rich in selenium, copper, vitamin B, and biologically active peptides such as creatine (emu) and anserine (ostrich), and has low content of sodium (ostrich). The abundance of bioactive compounds e.g. PUFA, makes ratite meat highly susceptible to oxidation and requires research concerning elaboration of innovative, intelligent packaging system for protection of nutritional and technological properties of this meat.


Oat is a crop with an important European history and tradition. The high value of oat in human nutrition, which is unique among cereals, is widely recognized and confirmed by health claims issued in various countries. It is based on a high content and quality of proteins, considerable content of fat with high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, high contents of dietary fiber, especially the soluble, highly viscous mixed linked (1->3)(1->4)-ß-D-glucans, which hypocholesterolemic effects, minerals and antioxidants, especially tocopherols, tocotrienols and avenanthramides. The main goal of this paper is on characterization and evaluation of accessions from European ex situ collections for different traits, which are important for the quality of oats in human nutrition. All field experiments carried out in experimental field of Suceava Genebank, during 2014-2016. Field screening of genetic material was performed by using several IPGRI descriptors: days to heading; growth habit; lodging at immature and mature stages; shape of panicle; lemma color; length of panicle; panicle numbers/m2; plant height; productivity; (g/m2); seed weight (g) and test weight (kg/hl). A wide variability was observed for all used descriptors, and some genotypes potentially interesting for breeding programs were identified (landraces and obsolete cultivars).


The objective of this study was to determine the effect of yeast preparations on selected properties of meat from suckling lambs. The experiment was conducted on 30 Kamieniec rams divided into three groups: I - control, II and III - experimental. Throughout the 100-day rearing period, the experimental animals were fed diets supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae prebiotics: Inter Yeast S® brewer's yeast in group II, and Biolex®-Beta S in group III. Fat content was determined by Soxhlet extraction. The fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat was determined by esterification followed by gas chromatography analysis. The content of vitamins A and E was determined by liquid chromatography. A significant increase in the content of fat, cholesterol, and vitamin E was noted in the meat of lambs of group II in comparison with control. The fat of animals in group II contained more fatty acids: C14:1, C18:2, C22:6 (P≤0.05), and C18:2 n-6 cis9trans11 (P≤0.01), and less C20:4 (P≤0.01). The fat of animals of group III contained more C18:0 and C22:6 fatty acids (P≤0.05), and less C18:0 (P≤0.05). The fat in this group had also lower concentrations of MUFA (P≤0.05), UFA, and, consequently, a lower UFA/SFA ratio (P≤0.05) in comparison with controls. The yeast-based supplements significantly affected selected health-promoting properties of lamb meat. The applied diet supplements had no significant effect on AI and TI values.


Milk yield and quality was assessed in cows raised on low-input farms (traditional feeding), i.e. two breeds covered by genetic resources conservation (RP and BG) and the SM breed. The reference group was PHF HO cows from an intensive milk production system (PMR feeding). A total of 1,212 milk samples were collected from three periods of lactation: I (up to 120 days), II (121–200) and II (over 200). The milk was analysed for content of fat, protein, casein, lactose, dry matter, non-fat dry matter and the protein-to-fat ratio, coagulation time, heat stability and the percentage of fat globules in different size ranges. Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content were determined in a representative number of 180 milk samples. Daily yield in the native breeds in the third phase of lactation was 9.6 and 8.7 kg, which was slightly over 55% of their yield in phase I, compared to 66% in the SM and 73.4% in the reference group (PHF HO). The increase in fat and protein (including casein) in the milk during lactation was much higher in the native breeds, so its energy value in phase II of lactation was 11% higher in the BG cows and 9% higher in RP, but only 4% higher in the SM with regard to phase I of lactation. The milk fat from the Polish Red cows had the highest proportion of PUFA in each phase of lactation, including CLA, and the highest PUFA/SFA ratio. Over the course of lactation the percentage of large fat globules in the milk decreased, particularly in the native breeds (P≤0.01), while in the SM the differences were much smaller and statistically insignificant. Lactation persistency in both native breeds raised in a low-input system was worse than in the SM, but the increase in basic components during lactation was markedly higher, while that of cholesterol was lower.


Background: Meal with high-fat content represents a common and increasing habit in general population in the Macedonia. Contribution of homocysteine and meal with high-fat content in the acute phase of first-ever ischaemic stroke (AFIS) due to the different dietary habits remains unclear.

Aim: Our aims/hypothesis was comparison of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) level and dietary habits in patients with AFIS and in controls due to non-consuming (non-users) or consuming (users) meat with high content of fats that can be regarded as traditional eating habits influenced by religion dietary restrictions from Lower Pollog populations.

Materials and Methods: From initially 847 patients hospitalized from September 2008 to August 2010in neurology department, only 231 patients with diagnostic entity-AFIS and 194 healthy subjects were evaluated in this study. Serum tHcy was measured on admission and dietary history was noted.

Results: In the overall pooled estimate, for all included study participants, serum tHcy level in the acute phase of disease and frequency of users are similar in patient with AFIS and in controls, but non-users mostly was dispose to AFIS and hyperhomocysteinemia.

Conclusion: Meat with high-fat content is very often combined with tHcy-increasing effects at users. Because the regression coefficient of linear regression model with users as variable, adjusting for age, gender and serum tHcy of patients with AFIS was not confirmed the statistical significance of previous pretesting factors by cross tabulation model our research could not confirm that hyperhomocisteinemia and meat with high-fat content are the only reason for cause of AFIS.