The main attractions of national parks include their scenic beauty, security, wildlife and trees. For preserving and maintaining national parks, an appropriate pricing policy can be used. The current study focuses on using the travel cost method (TCM) and contingent valuation method (CVM) as a non-market valuation technique to value the National Botanical Garden in Bangladesh, a developing country where little or no previous works of this kind has been conducted before. The main objective of the paper was to suggest an appropriate entrance fee for the park by assessing the willingness to pay (WTP) from the TCM and CVM; by determining a revenue maximizing entrance fee from the CVM; and by considering socio-demographics, the characteristics of visits and the motivation of the visitors to preserve the National Botanical Garden. The study sampled 100 visitors. These visitors participated in a survey which consisted of closed questions followed by a semi structured in-depth interview. For data processing, SPSS and Microsoft Excel were used. Based on the travel cost demand function using the TCM, the study found that the amount respondents were willing to pay for entrance was 0.955 US dollars and yearly consumer surplus was 593634.5 USD. From the CVM, it was estimated that the WTP was 0.225 USD for the entrance and revenue maximizing entrance fee was 0.376 USD. Finally, the entrance fee suggested for National Botanical Garden was around 0.225 USD.
Solmaz Zandi, Soleiman Mohammadi Limaei and Neda Amiri
economic value of National Parks with Count Data Models Using on-Site, Secondary Data: The case of the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve. Environmental Management, 43: 619-627.
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Lansdell N., Gangadharan L. 2003. Comparing travel cost models and the precision of their consumersurplus estimates: Albert Park and Maroondah Reservoir. Australian Economic Papers, 42: 999-417.
Mafi Gholami D., Yarali N
This paper analyzes the impact of R&D activities in an oligopoly on consumer surplus and social welfare. We use a two-stage model to analyze the behavior of duopolists at the research level, and in the final-product market, under the assumption of linear and quadratic cost functions. Three options for firm competition are considered: 1) Cournot competition at both stages; 2) cooperation at the R&D stage and Cournot competition in the final-product market; and 3) cooperation at both stages. Numerical simulations for various levels of R&D spillovers are conducted to analyze the welfare effects of firm decisions. We conclude that for high levels of technological spillovers, total welfare is highest when firms engage in cooperation at the R&D stage, and compete in the final product market, independent of the shape of cost functions. However, the functional form of production costs has a qualitative impact on welfare when firms fully compete.
Dario Musolino, Alessandro de Carli and Antonio Massarutto
The paper focuses on the socioeconomic impacts of drought events. Its objective is in particular to explore and study the distributive effects of drought events in the agricultural sector, taking the Po river basin, the most important agricultural area in Italy, as case study area. Its theoretical and methodological approach makes basis on the consumer surplus theory. One of the most remarkable outcomes of this analysis is that the effects of the drought events change considerably according to the social group. As far as agriculture is concerned, it shows that farmers and consumers are affected differently. Farmers can even earn from drought, because of the “price effect” caused by the scarcity of agricultural products; consumers always loses, because of the “quantity effect” and the “price effect”. Very different impacts, in terms of sign and magnitude, were also observed among the farmers themselves, in particular when they are distinguished by crop category, and by geographical area.
Teodora Popescu, Ioan Moise Achim and Manuella Kadar
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charge individual prices or suggest individualized price–service quality combinations that allow them to reap a much larger part of the consumersurplus than in the past. Such so-called third-degree price discrimination has not yet been a matter of active research in relation to AI but some insights from previous research allow a couple of conclusions to be drawn (see Tirole, 1988 ; Gifford and Kudrle, 2010 ). Arguably, AI-based price discrimination could be considered as first-degree price discrimination, allowing full extraction of consumer rents by producers. This