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The authors analyse a legal regulation of consumer protection in the Slovak Republic, comprised (among others) the Civil Code, the Act on Consumer Protection and the Act on Consumer Protection in Provision of Certain Tourism Services. They refer to the specifics of consumer law, which undermines the basic principles of private law (the principle of equality of the involved parties and the principle of the dominance of dispositive legal norms), because it primarily serves for the protection of a weaker party of the consumer agreement - a consumer. They focus on the claims of consumers - air passengers. The conclusion is that air passengers’ rights drive mainly from the EU law. They also present a survey regarding air passengers’ rights and propose suggestions on how to improve their satisfaction. The aim of a paper is to start a discussion on air passengers’ rights because the number of air passengers increases.
The subject of this article is the Th e “Deal-of-the-day” operators (discount website operators, such as Slevomat in the Czech Republic, or Groupon at the international level) and their practices, which can be unknown territory for most of their consumers. “Deal-of-the-day” websites (discount websites) are websites offering consumers a service to buy discounted (oft en gift ) certificates (coupons or vouchers) which can be used at local or national companies. When examining the issue deeply, we realise that there are many potential threats for the consumers who are not as well protected by consumer law as they should be. The article covers these problematic areas.
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Submitted article contains reflections on unfair terms in consumer contracts in the banks’ practice. The origin and the meaning of the unfair consumer terms are presented as well as their varies in legal aspects in banking practice. Every spotted sphere is filled with examples of unfair consumer terms. The article is an attempt to answer the question about the reasons of usage of unfair terms in consumer contracts by the banks – public confidence institutions – which are responsible for usage over 7% of all unfair terms, ruled by the court of competition and consumer protection.
The Energy Union is an important issue on the agenda of the European Commission, which is addressed in the package “Clean Energy for All Europeans”, adopted by the European Commission in November 2016. The present paper deals with the role of the Energy Union in ensuring an optimal framework for a common energy market at the level of the European Union, aimed for the benefit of the consumers in the European Union and of a modern and functional business environment. Which perspectives opens this possible win-win situation is a topic to be analyzed in the present article. The Energy Union is a stronger form of integration within the European Union, related to the internal market of the European Union, which brings more than harmonization of standards and mutual recognition: it brings a common policy and shared values. The goal of this project is to ensure consumer protection through common rules and harmonization, which is a trend at the level of the European Union occurring in various fields of activity and business sectors, such as the Energy Union, the Banking Union, data protection and the competition framework. The main focus on the consumer is new, compared to former attempts of harmonization in specific fields. The challenge rising from this project is to achieve a union in a strategic sector, such as energy. Possible aspects that could hamper the building of the union will be analyzed, for example the fact that some member states of the European Union still rely on fossil fuels, such as the coal industry. The switch to renewable energy sources is related to high costs, as well as to social turbulences on the labour market, that have to be taken into consideration. When drafting measures for the Energy Union, the effects on climate change as well as socio-economic parameters have to be weighed, in order to find the proper balance. It is therefore important to draft appropriate measures ensuring a smooth transition from fossil fuels to Clean Energy. The present paper focuses on these measures proposed by the European Commission. The key elements of the Energy Union will be analyzed in the measures drafted by the European Commission in the package “Clean Energy for All Europeans”. Case studies will illustrate the debated aspects and will provide best practice guidelines as a result. An interdisciplinary approach will be used in the present paper, combining economic and legal issues in a comparative manner.
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