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Outbound logistics channels are of crucial importance for an efficient construction materials logistics management and impacts on customer satisfaction. However, there is limited knowledge of the outbound logistics channels for construction material in Nigeria. This study aims to identify and examine the current outbound logistics channels used by the Nigerian construction material manufacturing industries. A quantitative research method using a case study approach was adopted in this research. The purposive sampling technique was chosen, where six construction material manufactured and distributed within five states capital and Abuja in the North-central region of Nigeria were selected for this study. A research instrument was developed and used in conjunction with an observation protocol in the form of a template. The data were collected through observations, direct measurement onsite and archival records of transactions. A descriptive method of data analysis was employed to analyse the data. Our findings indicate that there exist six alternative outbound logistics channels that can be used separately or in combination with each other to deliver materials to end users. The study concludes that the research finding provides a potential knowledge and understanding of the manufacturers’ outbound logistics channels that can be used at the start of a project to accomplish effective planning and delivery of the whole project. The study also established the average transportation cost per average ton and average transportation cost per average distance driven for construction material delivery. This information can be used for construction material transportation management.


The paper summarizes past experience in the use of reclaimed material in road construction layers according to various technologies applied in road construction. The recycling of asphalt pavements is a standard widely applied and established in road practice for many years. There is strong interest to increase the use of recycled materials in asphalt pavements for cost and environmental reasons. The paper defines the strengths and weaknesses of individual technologies and recommends where and when the use of R-material is appropriate, economically sound and technically justified. The production of new asphalt mixes with more reclaimed material is limited by more factors in the Czech Republic. They include the regulation of the quantity of reclaimed material in the standards and technical regulations. The machine equipment of contractors for recycling is not always sufficient either.


The term "passive house" refers to rigorous and voluntary standards for energy efficiency in a building, reducing its ecological footprint. There are many ways how to build a passive house successfully. These designs as well as construction techniques vary from ordinary timber constructions using packs of straw or constructions of clay. This paper aims to quantify environmental quality of external walls in a passive house, which are made of a timber frame, lightweight concrete blocks and sand-lime bricks in order to determine whether this constructional form provides improved environmental performance. Furthermore, this paper assesses potential benefit of energy savings at heating of houses in which their external walls are made of these three material alternatives. A two storey residential passive house, with floorage of 170.6 m2, was evaluated. Some measurements of air and surface temperatures were done as a calibration etalon for a method of simulation.

. 31, 1183-1190. [31] Gourley, J. T. (2003), “Geopolymers; Opportunities for environmentally friendly construction materials”, Presented as a keynote paper at; Materials 2003 conference, Adaptive Materials for a Modern Society, Institute of Materials Engineering Australasia, Sydney. [32] Granizo, M. L., Blanco, M. T. (1998), “Alkaline activation of metakaolin - an isothermal conduction calorimetry study”, Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry 52, 957-965. [33] Gum S. R., Young B. L., Kyung T. K. and Young S. Ch. (2013), “The mechanical properties of fly ash

–82. [5] RAHMAN, M.A.: The potentials of lateritic soil-Clay and clay-sand mixes in the manufacturing of bricks for masonry units. Build. Environ., Vol. 22, No. 4, 1987, pp. 325–330. [6] MUDI, M. - ALIYU, A.A.: An Examination of the Properties of Literate and Clay as Construction Materials for Sustainable Buildings in Kano and Kaduna Metropolis. Nigeria, July 2012, pp. 1–7. [7] ADAZABRA, A.N. - VIRUTHAGIRI, G. - SHANMUGAM, N.: An assessment on the sustainable production of construction clay bricks with spent shea waste as renewable ecological material. Vol. 1, No. 2


The paper presents results of pedological studies of Klembivka site 1 and Prydnistryanske site 1 barrow IV and the reference soil profile Prydnistryanske site 1 in the context of pedostratigraphy, basic soil properties, construction material origin and palaeoenvironmental implications.

wood as a multistory construction material: perceptions of municipal civil servants from Finland. Buildings 8 (159): 1‒15. G enevois , M.L.B P. – C osta , O.V. (2001). Carência habitacional e déficit de moradias: questões metodológicas [Housing lacking and dwelling shortage]. São Paulo em Perspectiva 15 (1): 73‒84. (in Portuguese) IBGE. (2013). Atlas do censo demográfico 2010 [Atlas of Demographic Census 2010]. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil: IBGE. (in Portuguese) IBGE. (2017

of Applied Sciences. Al Saffar, D., Alsaad, A., Tayeh, B. 2019. Effect of Internal Curing on Behavior of High Performance Concrete: An Overview . Case Studies in Construction Materials, 10. 10.1016/j.cscm.2019.e00229. Blikhars’kyi, Z. Ya., Obukh, Y. (2018). Influence of the Mechanical and Corrosion Defects on the Strength of Thermally Hardened Reinforcement of 35GS Steel . Materials Science, 54. 10.1007/s11003-018-0183-2. Blikharskyy, Y., Khmil, R., Blikharskyy, Z., 2018. Research of RC Columns Strengthened by Carbon FRP Under Loading , Matec Web of Conferences

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