Numerical analysis of the tensioning cables anchorage zone of a bridge superstructure is presented in this paper. It aims to identify why severe concrete cracking occurs during the tensioning process in the vicinity of anchor heads. In order to simulate the tensioning, among others, a so-called local numerical model of a section of the bridge superstructure was created in the Abaqus Finite Element Method (FEM) environment. The model contains all the important elements of the analyzed section of the concrete bridge superstructure, namely concrete, reinforcement and the anchoring system. FEM analyses are performed with the inclusion of both material and geometric nonlinearities. Concrete Damage Plasticity (CDP) constitutive relation from Abaqus is used to describe nonlinear concrete behaviour, which enables analysis of concrete damage and crack propagation. These numerical FEM results are then compared with actual crack patterns, which have been spotted and inventoried at the bridge construction site.
Formulae for the deflection of two examples of isostatic systems (simply supported beam, cantilever) were derived, accounting for influence of distribution of bending moments on cracking and beam stiffness distribution, according to EC2. Numerical analysis of the problem for the same two examples as well as for two further hyperstatic systems was performed using an iterative FEM algorithm. The influence of nonuniformity of cracking on deflection and distribution of bending moments was shown to be negligible in typical practical design problems, therefore also an estimation of deflection on the basis of the distribution of bending moments and the value of the factor αk obtained from linear solution (before redistribution) is shown to be justified.
In concrete beam bridges, the end diaphragm at the end of the bridge is a common structural component that connects the main beams and transfers the beam loads to the bridge bearings. In integral bridges the end diaphragm also retains the soil of embankments due to the absence of abutments. Cracking of the front surface on the end diaphragm has been detected in post-tensioned beam bridges in Finland and Sweden. Presumably the post-tensioning of the bridge and the shaping and detailing of the connection of the end diaphragm and main beam have an effect on cracking tendency. The aim of this study is to examine the structural behaviour and the cracking potential of end diaphragms using linear analysis of the post-tensioned bridge and to find measures to prevent the cracking.
The observations collected through field surveys are compared to results of linear FE analysis to clarify the cause of the cracking. The verification of model is performed by comparison of patterns of cracking observed in field surveys and the distribution of maximum tensile stresses in the FE model. With model variations, the effectiveness of measures for the prevention of cracking are observed.
This project focused on how the cracking process in concrete is influenced by both the micro and meso structures of concrete. The aim was to increase knowledge pertaining to the effect of critical parameters on the cracking process and how this is related to the material’s macroscopic properties. A methodology based on the combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scales was developed. Crack propagation during tensile loading of small-scale specimens in a tensile stage was monitored by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Acoustic Emission (AE). After testing, crack patterns were studied using fluorescence microscopy.
Imposed and restrained deformations cause stresses in continuous concrete bridges, and in analyses of the superstructure these stresses are usually reduced to some degree due to creep and cracking of concrete. This study examines cracking and redistribution of stresses in a bridge superstructure under the loads and load combinations used in the original bridge design. The subject of this study is a three-span post-tensioned continuous concrete cantilever beam bridge. The bridge was analysed with non-linear calculation utilising the general force method and moment-curvature relationships. The analysis yielded the bending stiffness of the post-tensioned bridge superstructure as a function of bridge length under different loads. It was discovered that the secondary moment from prestressing force increased as the bending stiffness of the central span decreased due to cracking under external loads, which is not normally considered in design. The bending moment effects of linear temperature difference and support settlement decreased as expected as the superstructure bending stiffness decreased. The analysis provided new information on the effects of secondary moment from the prestressing force and on the difference between the cracked state and the linear elastic analysis of the concrete bridge superstructure.
To solve the problem of predicting the service life of superstructures, this work proposes the basis and methodological developments of creep theory with increasing loads as well as regression analysis of the results of laboratory experiments. The main limitation in terms of reinforcement is corrosion in the concrete cracks, which was determined during laboratory experiments. Based on the results, the approximate analytical dependences concerning reinforcement corrosion depth change over time at a constant value of crack width were selected. The paper substantiates the validity of the analytical dependences as a result of regression analysis; it proposes formulae for determining the corrosion rate of rebars in reinforced concrete superstructures. The obtained analytical dependences allowed for the developing of a process for predicting changes to the state of the superstructure in light of operational changes.
The Dez dam was commissioned in 1963 and since sediments accumulated in the reservoir up to an elevation of approximately 15m below the intake of the power tunnel. One of the possible measures to improve operation of the reservoir is by heightening of the existing dam. This paper describes the conducted procedure for static and thermal calibration of this 203m dam in Iran based on micro geodesies measurements. Also the nonlinear response of existing dam is investigated under maximum credible earthquake ground motions considering joint behavior and mass concrete cracking and safety of dam is evaluated for possible heightening. For thermal calibration of provided numerical model, transient thermal analysis was conducted and results were compared with thermometers records installed in central block. In addition, for static calibration; thermal distribution within dam body, dam self weight, hydrostatic pressure and silt load applied on the 3D finite element model of dam-reservoir-foundation were considered. Results show that the distribution of stresses will be critical within dam for heightening case under seismic loads in MCL.
The bearing response of pile foundations for cross-sea bridge subjected to lateral loading is investigated through threedimensional finite element numerical analyses. In the analyses, non-linear behavior of concrete is simulated using smeared cracking model, and the strain-stress relationship of rebar is modeled through perfectly elasto-plastic model obeying Mises yield criterion. The finite element model is validated against published lateral static loading test in situ. The effect of reinforcement ratio of reinforced concrete and vertical load level is explored on the displacement of pile head and lateral capacity of pile. The results show that for the pile with low reinforcement ratio, the allowable lateral capacity is controlled by concrete cracking, however the allowable lateral capacity is controlled by the displacement of pile head with high reinforcement ratio. The vertical load applied on the pile head may reduce its displacement but increase simultaneously the maximum moment in the pile body. Therefore, the optimum vertical load level is 0.4~0.6 times of the vertical ultimate load of a single pile.
This paper analyzes two approaches to serviceability limit state (SLS) verification for the deep excavation boundary value problem. The verification is carried out by means of the finite element (FE) method with the aid of the commercial program ZSoil v2014. In numerical simulations, deep excavation in non-cohesive soil is supported with a diaphragm wall. In the first approach, the diaphragm wall is modeled with the Hookean material assuming reduced average stiffness and possible concrete cracking. The second approach is divided into two stages. In the first stage, the wall is modeled by defining its stiffness with the highest nominal Young’s modulus. The modulus makes it possible to find design bending moments which are used to compute the minimal design cross-section reinforcement for the retaining structure. The computed reinforcement is then used in a non-linear structural analysis which is viewed as the “actual” SLS verification.
In the second part, the paper examines the same boundary value problem assuming that the excavation takes place in quasi-impermeable cohesive soils, which are modeled with the Hardening Soil model. This example demonstrates the consequences of applying the steady-state type analysis for an intrinsically time-dependent problem. The results of this analysis are compared to the results from the consolidation-type analysis, which are considered as a reference. For both analysis types, the two-phase formulation for partially- saturated medium, after Aubry and Ozanam, is used to describe the interaction between the soil skeleton and pore water pressure.
Hydrotechnical constructions are mostly objects functioning in extreme conditions and requiring a custom-made construction project. In the case of using prefabricated elements, it is required to develop production, transport, assembly, conservation and repair technology. Concerning the problem of concrete cracks, modern repair systems allow positive effects to be achieved in many cases of concrete elements repair. In this work an attempt has been made to assess the properties of concrete, situated in the Baltic Sea environment, in which traditional rebar was partly replaced by dispersed fibre-phase. Fibre-reinforced concrete belongs to the group of composite materials. The presence of fibres helps to increase the tensile strength, flexural strength and resilience and also prevents the appearance of cracks. In the given paper we will also discuss basic parameters of steel and polymer fibres and the influence of both types of fibres on the maturing and hardened concrete. In this work special attention has been paid to the advantages of polypropylene and polymer fibres with regard to commonly-known steel fibres. The use of synthetic fibres will be advantageous in constructions where the reduction of shrinkage cracks and high resilience are essential. On top of that, the use of synthetic fibres is highly recommended when constructing objects that will be exposed to the impact of an aggressive environment. Undoubtedly, polymer fibres are resistant to the majority of corrosive environments. Fibre-reinforced concretes are a frequently implemented construction solution. The possibility of concrete modification allows the emergence of new construction materials with improved physical-mechanical properties, under the condition of being applied relevantly.