Mandarin manner adverbs like dasheng ‘loudly’ (lit. ‘big voice’) occur both sentence-medially and sentence-finally, whereas adverbs formed with the adverbializer de (地) like kuaikuaide ‘quickly’ occur only sentence-medially. The behavior of AP-地 adverbs is puzzling under a classical adjunction analysis and under Cinque’s (1999) hierarchy of functional projections. Here, I argue that Mandarin manner adverbs have a uniform low attachment in V complement position and that preverbal/medial position reflects obligatory movement imposed by the status of 地 as a “concordializing element”.
Badawi Elsaid, Carter Michael G., Gully Adrian. 2004. Modern Written Arabic. A Comprehensive Grammar. New York: Routledge.
Bańczerowski Jerzy. 1980. Systems of Semantics and Syntax. A Determinational Theory of Language. Warszawa-Poznań: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.
Bańczerowski Jerzy. 1988. "A Contribution to the Theory of Concord." In: Basaj et al. 1988: 53-69.
Bańczerowski Jerzy. 1997a. "A Theory of Rection." In: Hickey & Puppel 1997
clinicians ( 2 ).
Because of the extreme importance of survival indicator for assessing regional, international or global inequalities in the diagnosis practices and clinical management of cancer patients, several comparisons between and within countries are available today: the CONCORD study provides relative survival estimates for 31 countries on five continents ( 3 , 4 ), the EUROCARE study offers the relative survival data for 23 European countries ( 5 , 6 ), the OECD health reports present relative survival data for OECD countries ( 7 , 8 ), the SEER estimates
pictures. Memory and Cognition 8. 573-583.
Clark, H. H. and W. G. Chase. 1972. On the process of comparing sentences against pictures. Cognitive Psychology 3. 472-517.
Coles-White, J. 2004. Negative concord in child African American English: Implications for specific language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 47. 212-222.
De Clercq, K., Haegeman, L. and T. Lohndal. 2012. Medial adjunct PPs in English: Implications for the syntax of sentential negation. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 35. 5
This study arises out of the intention to examine the features of expert-lay interaction in a jury trial. The paper studies closing arguments constructed by legal experts as possible worlds which would be attractive for jurors. Theory of possible worlds is employed to present discourse practices as versions of the real world which may overlap, supplement or contradict one another. Legal experts construe and present possible worlds to jury members who deliver verdicts on the case, i.e. possess decisional power. Efficient involvement of jurors into the possible world constructed by the legal expert signals formation of discourse of concord. In order to make their own possible world more credible than the world of the procedural opponents, legal experts employ different interaction tools: description of legal concepts, empathy, appeals to social values, imperative and question utterances, personalization.
Mihaela Lungu, Sorin Liviu Ștefănescu and Monica Dumitrașcu
Soil fertility properties, irrigation water quality, mineral nutrition, and some vegetables mineral composition were studied in the frame of a project regarding yield quality monitoring in certified organic vegetable farms, in two farms placed on the outskirts of Bucharest Municipality which provide products for the town’s organic market. Chemical analysis of the soil samples collected from the two farms reflects a good fertility, close to the natural one of this region soils, with well-balanced organic matter, total nitrogen, accessible phosphorus and potassium contents. The nitrates contents concord with the plants nutrition demands and don’t present the risk to accumulate in vegetables or to leach into the groundwater. Slightly increased microelements, both total and soluble forms, occur. Soil microbiological properties are favorable for vegetable plants growth. A good biodiversity is noticed. There are differences between soil properties in open field and greenhouses, induced both by the type and degree of mechanical works and materials applied for fertilization and plant protection. Good conditions are generally created for plants mineral nutrition. Mineral nutrition status of the vegetables grown in organic conditions, assessed by the leaves mineral composition, doesn’t differ from the one of the vegetables grown in conventional conditions. The vegetables (fresh material) harvested from the two studied farms have good, even high, concentrations of mineral elements important for the yield nutritional quality. The excessive microelements quantities noticed in soil don’t transfer in the yield, so the latter quality and nutritional properties are not altered.
. 2005. Metadiscourse: Exploring interaction in writing. London: Continuum.
Johns, Tim. 1986. Micro-concord: A language learner’s research tool. System 14(2): 151-162.
Johns, Tim. 1991. Should you be persuaded: Two examples of data-driven learning. English Language Research Journal 4: 1-16.
O’Keeffe, Anne, Michael McCarthy and Ronald Carter. 2007. From corpus to classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sinclair, John. 1991. Corpus, concordance, collocation. Describing English language. Oxford
communities. The Dawn Journal, 3(1) (January-June), 693-714.
Asante, M. Y. (2012). Variation in subject-verb concord in Ghanaian English. World Englishes , 31 (2), 208-225.
Asante, M. Y. (2015). L1-Influence as a possible source of variation in the use of the third person singular in Ghanaian English. In G.S.K. Adika & C.C. Asante (Eds.), Multilingualism, Language in Education and Academic Literacy: Applied Linguistics Research in the Language Centre (pp. 25-36). Accra: Sub-Saharan.
Hyde, F. B. (2014). On the state of English Studies among first year
Does the Genitive Operate in the Hungarian Case System?: II. The Ø-/nak-/nek-Genitive
The present paper should be regarded as a direct continuation of the article Does the Genitive Operate in the Hungarian Case System? I. The é-Genitive. The core of the adopted approach represents the standpoint that present-day Hungarian cannot be conceived as a language exempt from any case syncretism. The possibility of distinguishing different case categories relevant for this language by referring only to the form of their markers (endings) is illusory. What is more, it creates a space where some phenomena remain imperceptible. The postulated attributive genitive category can be distinguished not only on the basis of its syntactic properties. The manifestations of this case also differ substantially from the manifestations of other recognized cases. It is difficult to regard the attributive genitive in Hungarian as syncretic with nominative or dative in the sense known in general linguistics, because the appropriate markers turn out to be insufficient in semifying (marking grammatically) the required meaning. They must be complemented by other markers attached to the head of the attributive syntagm (a diák/Ø könyv/e, a diák/nak a könyv/e ‘the student's book’). The properties of the distribution of the Hungarian attributive genitive with its two main manifestations (the endingless one: a diák könyve, and with ending: a diáknak a könyve) can be regarded as a contribution to the general theory of syntax; the genitive attributes of different grades are marked there substantially (a diák/Ø (III) könyv/e (II) cím/é/nek (I) a fordítás/a ‘the translation of the title (I) of the book (II) of the student (III)’) and not only by their linear order as in many Indo-European and Finno-Ugric languages. When the word fulfilling the attributive function belongs to the category of personal pronoun, concord can be identified between it and its head in person and number (az én könyv/em ‘my book, the book of mine’). The factual elision of personal pronouns resulting from their redundancy in this context gives no grounds to state that morphemes like -em in a könyv/em do not fulfil any syntagmatic function. Such an utterance constitutes a discrepancy with the analogous behaviour of personal pronouns in relation to finite verbal forms (olvas/ok ‘I read’ → olvas/ok ‘(I) read’) where no-one speaks of the irrelevancy of the personal endings in reference to their syntagmatic function. The necessity of distinguishing of socalled "marks" (here "possessor marks") is being questioned here; those morphemes are not deprived of fulfilling the syntagmatic function ascribed traditionally to the case endings in the case of nominal flexion. They are regarded here as parts of the discontinuative (genitive) case markers. The specific features of the Hungarian genitive include its sharp division into two subcategories: (i) the é-genitive and (ii) the Ø-/nak-/nek-genitive. Their complementary distribution, together with other discussed properties, additionally corroborates the relevance of distinguishing for them a common upper morphosyntactic category called the genitive case. And finally, Hungarian turns out to be a language where the accumulation of multiple case meanings, all being manifested substantially within the boundaries of one word, can be attested (a diák/om/é/é/t ‘the one of the one of my student’).
. Nashville: Royal Publishers, Inc.
Mather, Cotton. 1820. “A Notable Exploit” Magnalia Christi Americana . 1702. vol. 2.
New Haven: S. Converse Printer.
Reinwater, Catherine. 2003. “Indian Captivity Narrative” in Serafin, Steven R. and Alfred Bendixen. (Eds.). The Continuum Encyclopedia of American Literature . New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, pp. 565-567.
Thoreau, Henry David. 2003. A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers . The Project Gutenberg E-text: Bebook.