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In the presented study we assume, after Piotr Sztompka that a sociological theory is every set of ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions, abstract notions and general propositions concerning social reality which is to provide with explanation of existing descriptive knowledge about it and orient future research (Sztompka 1985, p. 12). In the discussed theory there have developed hitherto the following orientations: the systemic-functional one, the ethnomethodological one, symbolic interactionism, theory of conflict, socio-historical theory and positivist theory. They have together shaped theoretical conceptions in sociology of sport and — indirectly — in other social physical culture sciences.
Interpreting the issue in a prospective way, it can be assumed that in the future there will appear other theories, such as the theory of behaviour, the theory of rational choice, the sociobiological theory, the theory of power, the theory of neo-institutionalism and others.
Sociology, however, need not to be the only source of inspiration for sociohumane sports sciences. An equally important role can be played there by philosophy and psychology. Moreover, that thesis can be referred to other humanities, especially to history and pedagogy, as well as to philosophical, sociological and pedagogical versions of theory of physical culture — or to multidisciplinary theories, as e.g. postmodernist and globalist ones.
The body condition scoring system (BCS) is a means of accurately determining body condition of dairy cows, independent of body weight and farm size. The body condition scores represent a subjective visual or tactile (or both) evaluation of the amount of subcutaneous fat in a cow. The system is a useful method of evaluating body energy reserves and is used widely for evaluating nutritional status in dairy cows. The different stages of lactation have different recommended scores. BCS change during the lactation period depends on the milk production, reproduction and health status. Extreme body condition loss in the early lactation can cause irregular heats, longer time to first ovulation, and fail to conceive. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of BCS on Holstein cows’ reproduction. The relationship between some BCS parameters: BCS at calving (BCSc), minimum BCS after calving (BCSmin) and the reduction of BCS after calving (BCSr) on one hand and three reproductive parameters: the days from calving to first service (DFS), number of inseminations to conception (NIC), and days open (DO) on the other hand were studied in three private dairy farms in South Hungary. BCS were determined monthly during milk recording. A total of 786 records of Holstein cows from 1 to 3 lactation were evaluated. DFS was significantly (P<5%) influenced by BCSs and BCSmin. The number of inseminations to conception (NIC) varied according to the individual cow. In the present study was between 1 and 12. The most favourable DO values were observed in the group having >3.5 BCSc (150.04 days), the group with 3.0-3.5 BCSmin (138.92) and the group having >1 BCSr. There was no significant relationship found between DO and the BCS groups.
The article presents the life and educational activities of Blessed Marcelina Darowska, the co-founder of the Convent of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and her views on up-bringing of young women. Mother Marcelina’s perception of education of girls in the 19th century seemed modern and beyond her time. In her opinion, there was a need of putting a stop to producing “parlour dolls” and provide young women with practical education. For the betterment of the country, she set up schools in Jazłowiec, Jarosław, Niżniów and Nowy Sącz. The girls attending the schools were brought up according to the system developed by Marcelina Darowska, based on religious and patriotic values. The Convent of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary continues the work commenced by its founder; over time Mother Marcelina’s message remains valid and serves the subsequent generations of young Polish girls.
Katowice Region in the Light of the Selected Conceptions of Social-Economic Transformations
Taking into consideration all conceptions of economic and social development discussed here it should be concluded that
-- non of the classical models of social transformation is represented in the Katowice region in homogeneous form. In fact, only modernisation (as it is a historical aspect) is most distinguished among others;
-- it is possible that features typical for several models of economic or social transformations occur at the same time. This concerns spatial approaches.
The consequence of frequent fragmentation of social-economic reality in numerous theoretical conceptions and proposals of restructuring changes is a narrow understanding of the research problems. It seems, therefore, that conceptions of social development created on the basis of sociology may be successfully applied in social geography. The condition here is not only taking into account spatial aspects but also the possibility of applying several models of transformations at the same time.
Conception of Crossed Populations: Application in Cyclopoida Taxonomy
The conception of crossed populations in wide practice of taxonomic investigations in Cyclopoida is used for the first time. Applying this conception in taxonomy of cyclopoid copepods we based on revealed facts of the coexistence of sibling species which keep a little morphological hiatus. Hence, next pairs of species we consider as independent ones: Eucyclops speratus (Lilljeborg) and E. serrulatus (Lilljeborg); Paracyclops poppei (Rehberg) and P. fimbriatus (Fischer); Megacyclops latipes (Lowndes), M. viridis (Jurine) and M. gigas (Claus); Diacyclops clandestinus (Kiefer) and D. languidoides (Lilljeborg); D. hypnicola (Gurney) and D. languidoides (Lilljeborg); D. odessanus (Schmankevitsch) and D. bicuspidatus (Claus); Microcyclops rubellus (Lilljeborg) and M. varicans (Sars); Halicyclops septentrionalis (Kiefer) and H. neglectus (Kiefer). Facts of coexistence of Acanthocyclops americanus (Marsh) and its form A. americanus f. spinosa (Monchenko) differing by only one qualitative feature (spine or seta on outer edge on endopodite P4 distal segment) that has no transitive manifestation do not allow us to consider morphological form A. americanus f. spinosa as a separated species from the type A. americanus.