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Academic Rigor and Dedication to Competitive Sport in Young People 12-18 Years: Major Social Issues

Quantitative study with the aim of linking the academic performance of students who are high-level athletes in Catalonia (Spain) and who do not have any institutional support (high-performance centre, reduction of subjects, etc.) or belong to any educational institution with adapted curriculum (90-95% of households), compared to sedentary students who play sports only occasionally.

The study divided students into two groups by age: 12, 14, 16 and 18 years old (secondary school). The general group (GG) was made up of students who did sports at school, did not participate in major competitions, and the weekly training requirement did not exceed 3 hours (N = 262). The group of athletes (AG) is made up of students who at least competed for the Championship of Catalonia (swimming and basketball) and the weekly training requirement exceeded 4.30 in younger students (N = 212). The questionnaires were constructed in order to gather academic information, highlighting the grades of the subjects for the second evaluation of the 2008-09 academic year and full-time sports data for training (day session, hours, competition) and schooling (public or private).

We found a significant correlation (0.99) in comparing the evolution of differences between the grades of the groups. Supporting an extraordinary demand for training, and increasing with age, student athletes have better academic performance throughout secondary education. However, this trend is broken in high school, coinciding with the highest dedication to training.

Two other important considerations are highlighted in the study: first, the GG presented inactivity levels which increase linearly with age and this is more prominent in females, and secondly, the enrolment of the school is basically AD private state-assisted and not public system, which can make us think about whether the family ideology also influences the sports options for children.

References Ackland TR, Ong KB, Kerr DA, Ridge B. Morphological characteristics of Olympic sprint canoe and kayak paddlers. J Sci Med Sport, 2003; 6(3): 285-294. Aitken DA, Jenkins DG. Anthropometric-based selection and sprint kayak training in children. J Sports Sci, 1998; 16(6): 539-543. Billat V, Palleja P, Charlaix T, Rizzardo P, Janel N. Energy specificity of rock climbing and aerobic capacity in competitive sport rock climbers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1995; 35: 20-24. Bourgois J, Claessens AL, Vrijens J, Philippaerts R, Van Renterghem B, Thomis M, Janssens

Participation in Competitive Sport and Sport Leisure Among Working Inhabitants of Warsaw Based on Selected Groups

Introduction. The aim of this work was to explore sports activities among various socio-professional groups based on the example of the inhabitants of Warsaw. Material and methods. The sample comprised of 6547 inhabitants of Warsaw - representatives of 16 professional groups. The study was conducted with the use of an especially designed questionnaire, featuring two sections - the first one devoted to organised sport, and the second and on the participation in sport leisure (regular, periodical, sporadic) within the previous year. In keeping with the European definition, sport is understood as both competitive sport, and regular sport leisure or recreation. The survey was carried out by trained interviewers exclusively in March and November 2006-2008. Results. Participation in sport activities among Poles increased not only compared to other European countries, but also to previous Polish studies, as it pertained to 43% of Warsaw inhabitants. The proportion of Warsaw residents involved in organised sport amounted to 6%, and those involved in regular recreation to 41%. Pupils and students are the most active both in sport and in leisure. Nearly 19% of pupils and nearly 8% of students are involved in organised sport activities, while for sport leisure this proportion amounts to 55% and 50% respectively. In the case of both competitive sport activities and leisure the number of men exceeds the number of women involved in them. Conclusions. Sport activities that Poles involve in are still not close to the recommended WHO and ATMS norms.

Sport and other motor activities of Warsaw students

Study aim: To assess the engagement of students of Warsaw university schools in sports and in recreational motor activities.

Material and methods: A cohort (n = 1100) of students attending B.S. or M.S. courses at 6 university schools in Warsaw were studied by applying questionnaire techniques. The questions pertained to participation in competitive sports and in recreational motor activities throughout the last year.

Results: 8% of all students participated in competitive sports, 5% were members of college athletic clubs. Over 90% of students declared practicing leisure motor activities regularly (53%), seasonally (29%) or occasionally (11%). Most differences were related to the study year, 2nd year students being more active than their 4th year mates.

Conclusions: Higher engagement of 2nd than of 4th year students in motor activities may result from obligatory, curricular physical education activities. Academic communities ought to undertake substantial effort towards shaping continuous health-directed habits of students.


Blood flow restriction (BFR) combined with resistance training (RT-BFR) shows significant benefits in terms of muscle strength and hypertrophy. Such effects have been observed in clinical populations, in groups of physically active people, and among competitive athletes. These effects are comparable or, in some cases, even more efficient compared to conventional resistance training (CRT). RT-BFR stimulates muscle hypertrophy and improves muscle strength even at low external loads. Since no extensive scientific research has been done in relation to groups of athletes, the aim of the present study was to identify technical, physiological and methodological aspects related to the use of RT-BFR in competitive athletes from various sport disciplines. RT-BFR in groups of athletes has an effect not only on the improvement of muscle strength or muscle hypertrophy, but also on specific motor abilities related to a particular sport discipline. The literature review reveals that most experts do not recommend the use RT-BFR as the only training method, but rather as a complementary method to CRT. It is likely that optimal muscle adaptive changes can be induced by a combination of CRT and RT-BFR. Some research has confirmed benefits of using CRT followed by RT-BFR during a training session. The use of BFR in training also requires adequate progression or modifications in the duration of occlusion in a training session, the ratio of exercises performed with BFR to conventional exercises, the value of pressure or the cuff width.

References Aureliusz, Augustyn (413-426). De civitate Dei. Hegel, G.W.F. (1990). Encyklopedia nauk filozoficznych /Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences/. Warszawa: PWN. Fromm, E. (1966). Szkice z psychologii religii. /Sketches on Psychology of Religion/. Warszawa: KiW. Kant, I. (1984). Uzasadnienie metafizyki moralności /Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals/. Warszawa: PWN. Karolczak-Biernacka, B. (2000). Agresywny sport w agresywnym świecie /Aggressive Sport in Aggressive World/. Sport Wyczynowy /Competitive Sport/ , no. 7-8. Kosiewicz, J

References Aureliusz, Augustyn (413-426). De civitate Dei. Hegel, G.W.F. (1990). Encyklopedia nauk filozoficznych /Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences/. Warszawa: PWN. Fromm, E. (1966). Szkice z psychologii religii. /Sketches on Psychology of Religion/. Warszawa: KiW. Kant, I. (1984). Uzasadnienie metafizyki moralności /Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals/. Warszawa: PWN. Karolczak-Biernacka, B. (2000). Agresywny sport w agresywnym świecie /Aggressive Sport in Aggressive World/. Sport Wyczynowy /Competitive Sport/, no. 7-8. Kosiewicz, J. (2001

superficialis was greater. All available studies and practical experience indicate that endurance is important in competitive sport climbing ( España-Romero et al., 2009 ; Ferguson and Brown, 1997 ; Magiera et al., 2013 ). The endurance tests applied in this study required the climbers to hang from a bar, a 2.5 cm ledge and a 4 cm ledge until volitional failure (HANG, HANG 1 and 2, respectively). The duration of the trial was an indication of the subject’s resistance to fatigue. It was not surprising to find that the results of both ledge tests (r = 0.77) were very strongly

the many alternative forms of rehabilitation of the disabled includes competitive sports. Recently there has been an increased emphasis on the role of competitive sport in enhancing health and the quality of life of individuals with disability ( Goldberg, 1995 ). One of the sport disciplines of Paralympics is the flat bench press. The bench press is an often recommended exercise for individuals with paraplegia, amputations and other locomotors dysfunctions. It is characterized by short-term, high intensity efforts which require significant development of muscular


Archery is a tradition, a style of martial arts and a competitive sport, while at the same time being an art form. The equipment consists of a bow and arrows. The deflection of the arrow is a very important characteristic, one which has a decisive influence on how and if the arrow reaches the target. This has a tremendous impact on the performance of the archer in both competition and archery demonstrations. The quantification and measurement of arrow deflection is equally important to both manufacturers and archers. It is affected by the arrow’s static bending. In this paper the bend of the arrow shall be determined.