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Bibliografie: Aristotel, Poetica , Editura Academiei 1965. Henri Bergson, Laughter: An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic , Macmillan, New York, 1911. Konrad Lorenz, On Aggression , Routledge, London, 1996, pg. 253. Vistian Goia, Literatura pentru copii şi tineret , Cluj-Napoca, Editura Napoca Star, 2000.

References: Bailyn, L. 1959. “Mass media and children: A study of exposure habits and cognitive effects”. Psychological Monographs 73: 201-216. Catalina, A. N and Bottez, M. 2013. “Transcending media: analysis concerning the adaptation of Harap-Alb Romanian fairy tale in comic format”. Studies on Literature, Discourse and Multicultural Dialogue 1: 264-268 Creangă, Ion, and Ionaşcu, Mihai. 2013. Harap Alb Continuă. Album. Bucureşti: RomPrintPaper. Cummins, J. 1991. Language, Culture and Cognition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Eisner, Will. 1885. Comics


Comic could be a means to represent certain values. The reality is described through the storyline, setting and characterization which are packed in comic rubric. In comic, the whole symbols in the text will give certain meanings. They are including characters, dialogues, words written in word balloons, figure characters, and setting. This combination formed certain meanings which will determine how the reality will be framed by the media. Ketopraktoon is a comic strip which consistently reviews the sociopolitical issues and serves as a semi-comic in Kompas newspaper editorial. The strength of ketopraktoon in its social critics is built of figure’s characters which are presented in straightforward way with the support of storyline which fitted to the actual and factual condition in accordance with the dynamics of general election in Indonesia. This study aimed to discover how the election campaign during the Reform Era is represented in Ketopraktoon comic. This study used a qualitative approach with data analysis techniques semiotics of Barthes. To find the signs require appropriate and feasible methods of text analysis. Since the text to analyze is in the form of comics, the researcher defines the sign found in the comic text applies the technique that uses the semiotics of Barthes connotations and myths. The results showed (1) General Election campaign purely contained slogans and political rhetoric; (2) Pragmatism political parties and constituency campaign; (3) Irrationality behavior of political parties and constituency campaign; (4) Political branding refers to a materialistic tradition to gain popularity and power; (5) primitive and traditional culture in the election campaign.


References Anastasiei, M. - Distributions on spray spaces , Balkan J. Geom. Appl., 6 (2001), 1-6. Anastasiei, M.; Čomić, I. - Geometry of k-Lagrange spaces of second order , 11th Yugoslav Geometrical Seminar (Divcibare, 1996), Mat. Vesnik, 49 (1997), 15-22. Asanov, G. S. - Finsler Geometry, Relativity and Gauge Theories , Fundamental Theories of Physics, D. Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht, 1985. Balan, V.; Munteanu, Gh.; Stavrinos, P. C. - Generalized gauge Asanov equations on Osc (2) (M) bundle , Proceedings of the Workshop on Global Analysis, Differential

Muzicală. 5. Cosma, M. (2001). Opera în România privită în context european , [ Opera in Romania Seen in an European context ]. București: Editura Muzicală. 6. Dumitriu, L. (2008). Caragiale în teatrul liric , [ Caragiale in the Lyrical Theatre ], vol. I, comic opera. București: Editura Muzicală. 7. Tomescu, V. (1967). Paul Constantinescu . București: Editura Muzicală. 8. Vieru, A. (1956). Însemnări la O Noapte furtunoasă , [ Notes to A Stormy Night ], Muzica no. 3 magazine. București: Editura Muzicală.


The article provides a report on research conducted on the creative activity of Jerzy Wróblewski, a Polish author of comics published in the book „Urodzony, żeby rysować”. Twórczość komiksowa Jerzego Wróblewskiego, “Born to Draw.” Jerzy Wróblewski’s Comic Art (Jaworski, 2015). It is the first study of this kind in Poland. From this point of view, it contains not only a body of knowledge in the form of a monograph of the comic writer’s artistic creativity, but it also includes a developed research model. The structure of this model, combining traditional monographic narrative with broad historical, political and social context, can be used in the analyses of artistic accomplishments of other authors of Polish comics. The presented study addresses the need for scientific explorations in this field, but also for raising the value of those parts of Polish modern culture which were marginalised as ‘worse’ for many years, first for political reasons, then for cultural ones. It appears that the time has come to examine critically the artistic creativity of important figures of Polish popular culture (in this case of comics) objectively and without ideological prejudice, and recognise them as full authors of Polish culture. Jerzy Wróblewski is among them and that is why the book is about him.


The present research focuses on the toccata in a contemporary stylistic context, as a revival of the Baroque toccata in the creation of a Romanian composer from Cluj-Napoca, Șerban Marcu. He is a representative of the mature school of composition, studying under the tutorship of the celebrated Romanian composer Cornel Țăranu. His style unveils a series of constant traits, such as the programmatic feature and the preference towards musical forms and genres pertaining to the Western musical tradition, among them the madrigal, the song, the bagatella, the variations, the suite, the étude, the tone poem, the ballet or even the opera. He wrote five toccatas over the span of a decade. The toccata – understood both as a musical genre and a composing technique – is to be found in his output either as a movement in a mini-suite (Free Preview, 2008), or as an autonomous work, written for solo instruments as the piano (Toccatina, 2017), the organ (Balkan Toccata, 2018), as well as for various chamber ensembles, each featuring, among other instruments, the piano (tocCaTa brevissima, 2014, Toccata impaziente, 2018). The analysis unfolds by taking as focal point a series of keywords that have circumscribed the term toccata within the musicological literature. These core concepts are further placed in relationship with various techniques – neo-baroque as well as modern ones – which are to be identified in Șerban Marcu’s output of toccatas. The analytical procedures focus on highlighting the tradition/innovation binomial and are layered by taking into discussion the parameters of the musical discourse, namely the form, the musical language, the idiomatic instrumental writing, the compositional techniques, as well as aesthetic aspects such as the playfulness, the comic, the irony, the bizarre, the caricature and the paraphrase.


A musical inspiration, Don Pasqule by Gaetano Donizetti offers a wealth of examples of how to capitalize on the vocal and musical potential offered by the opera show. We aim to analyze vocal scores - areas, duets, recitatives and vocal ensembles and to emphasize their musical achievement.


Shakespeare’s dramas are potentialities. Any Hamlet may be understood as the space in which Shakespeare’s thoughts are remembered, as a reproduced copy of the unspecified, unidentified source, the so called original. Simultaneously, it may be conceived of as the space where Shakespeare’s legacy and authority is tested, trifled and transgressed. Nowadays Shakespeare’s dramas are disseminated in multifarious forms such as: printed materials, audio and video recordings, compact audio discs, digital videos and disc recordings. Since I am fond of the cultural phenomenon called Hamlet, not a singe text or performance, but a continuum of human interaction with intermediated and transcoded versions of the drama, in this article I focus on the abovementioned single play. I accentuate the title character’s profound meaning in Shakespeare studies and his iconic status in Western culture in different media. I exploit W.B. Worthen’s concept of “Shakespeare 3.0.” to demonstrate Shakespeare’s presence in digital reality on the example of a comic rendering of Hamlet (Tugged Hamlet, 1992) by the Polish cabaret POTEM. Their cabaret sketch, although it was not created for the Internet audience, is available on-line via YouTube, consituting “Shakespeare 3.0.” Furthermore, I pose several questions and attempt to answer them in the course of my analysis: to what extent does the image of a mournful and contemplative Hamlet pervade different dimensions of culture, especially our collective imagination?; what chances of realization has a cultural fantasy of challenging the myth of a witty and contemplative Hamlet when re-written and presented as a pastiche or satire?; was the Polish cabaret POTEM succesful in their comic performance?

BIBLIOGRAPHY Ewa Witkowska, Komiks japoński w Polsce: historia i kontrowersje [Japanese Comic in Poland: History and Controversy], Toruń 2012 Jay Navok, Sushil K. Rudranath, Jonatthan Mays, Warriors of Legend: Reflection of Japan i Sailor Moon [Warriors of Legend: Reflection of Japan and Sailor Moon], North Charleston 2005 Jerzy Szyłak, Komiks w kulturze ikonicznej XX wieku: wstęp do poetyki komiksu [Comic book in the iconic culture of the 21 st century: introduction to the comic poetry], Gdańsk 1999 John E. Ingulsrud, Kate Allen, Reading Japan Cool