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The knee joint is not only the most important and complex structure to present during anatomy lectures, but also a significant region for radiologists and orthopedicians. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to evaluate the efficacy of plastinated specimens by measuring colorimetric differentiation and 2) to compare the anatomical structures of the images obtained from computed tomography (CT) and silicone plastination cross-sections and perform three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed models of the specimens. A total of 16 knee joints selected from the 10% formalin fixed/dissected group (n=6), non-fixed/dissected group (n=6) and non-dissected whole knee joint group (n=4) were scanned by CT and plastinated by using the S10B silicone technique. The color changes of the structures were quantitatively determined with the colorimeter device. Plastinated whole knee joints were cut transversally with a band saw and compared with CT images. Finally, 3D reconstruction of the knee joints was performed from CT images with the 3D reconstruction program. There were statistically significant differences between the fixed and non-fixed groups in terms of color changes (p<0.001). The anatomical structures were identified and matched in the cross-sections of plastinates and corresponding CT images. It was observed that plastinated samples were elastic, durable and non-hazardous specimens to use in the veterinary orthopedics and anatomy courses and lectures. It has been found that fixation was useful for the final product morphology. It is thought that the 3D images obtained from this study will support comprehension of the relationships between the bones, muscles, and ligaments.


Nitric oxide in cigarette smoke was conveniently determined by non-dispersive infrared analysis (NDIR). Recoveries of 95 % were obtained with standard gas-air mixtures but recoveries from smoke increased from 87% for high-yield to 91 % for low-yield cigarettes. Relative error was about 4 %. A reduction in the dead volume of Cambridge filter cassettes, to reduce the amount of NO reacted between puffs, increased NO deliveries of cigarettes by 4%. Deliveries of NO were estimated to average 4 % lower due to oxidation, but reaction with other smoke components reduced them further depending upon concentrations. The NO deliveries of cigarettes increased as blend nitrate increased and as the flow of air around cigarettes decreased. Nitric oxide in smoke and in standard gas-air mixtures, determined by non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy, was substantiated by an automated colorimetric analysis. Interfering smoke species were determined and circumvented in both methods.


Introduction: Glycolic changes which occur post-mortem have an impact on the physical and sensory features of beef, which in turn determine the successive processes and influence such beef quality traits as colour, tenderness, and cooling loss. The aim of this study was evaluation of the post-mortem changes in bovine meat during aging, quantitative analysis of glycogen and lactic acid, as well as examination of their impact on technological and sensory quality of selected muscles from Holstein-Friesian × Limousin breed carcasses.

Material and Methods: The study included three muscles of different metabolic qualities and sarcomere length: m. semitendinosus, m. longissimus dorsi, and m. psoas major, collected from nine bull carcasses aged 24 ±2 months.

Results: Significant correlations were found between the volume of cooling loss on individual days of aging and the pH value of muscle tissue, lactic acid and glycogen content, as well as beef lightness. However, no significant dependency between the volume of glycogen and the intensity of red and yellow colours was detected.

Conclusion: The colorimetric analysis of glycogen and lactic acid can be an effective tool in predicting the quality of beef.

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