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Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

), 107-113. Lu, C., Warchol, K.M., & Callahan, R.A. (2014). Sublethal exposure to neonicotinoids impaired honey bees winterization before proceeding to colony collapse disorder. Bulletin of Insectology , 67 (1), 125-130. Łozowicka, B. (2013). The development, validation and application of a GC-dual detector (NPD-ECD) multi-pesticide residue method for monitoring bee poisoning incidents. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety , 97 , 210-222. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.07.010 Maini, S., Medrzycki, P., & Porrini, C. (2010). The puzzle of honey bee

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A Comparative Study of Environmental Conditions, Bee Management and the Epidemiological Situation in Apiaries Varying in the Level of Colony Losses

., Pettis J. S., Lipkin W. I. (2007) A metagenomic survey of microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder. Science 318: 283-287. DOI: 10.1126/science.1146498 Currie R. W., Gatien P. (2006) Timing acaricide treatments to prevent Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) from causing economic damage to honey bee colonies. Canadian Entomologist 138: 238-252. Dainat B., Evans J. D., Chen Y. P., Gauthier L., Neumann P. (2012a) Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse. PLoS ONE 7: e32151. Dainat B., Evans J. D., Chen Y. P

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Short- and long-term effects of neonicotinoid application in rice fields, on the mortality and colony collapse of honeybees (Apis mellifera)

Abstract

Declines in honeybee (Apis mellifera ) colonies have elicited great concern worldwide. Recently, many Japanese beekeepers have implied that midsummer use of a new insecticide, neonicotinoid, in rice fields, is causing widespread mortality of neighboring honeybees and frequently resulting in colony collapse. Since few field experiments have directly tested the effects of neonicotinoids, I addressed four research questions in the field. The questions are: 1) Does clothianidin application in rice fields cause the collapse of neighboring honeybee colonies? 2) Is colony collapse related to hive distance from the rice field? 3) Is the number of dead honeybee workers after spraying, related to hive distance from the field? 4) What are the long-term effects of neonicotinoid use on honeybee colony growth, especially brood production? In the late summer of 2010, honeybee hives were placed adjacent to two separate rice fields for 1 week. The hives were placed at the distance of 0, 30, 60, and 90 m. After spraying clothianidin, a daily count of dead worker honeybees was done for a week. Hives were weighed, and capped-brood areas were estimated weekly, for 2 months following insecticide application. Although the average number of dead workers ranged from 40 to over 100 within 24 hours after spraying, only a few dead workers were observed in the subsequent days. Distance from the rice field had no significant effect on the number of dead workers. There were no collapsed colonies during the 2-month, post-spray observation period. Hive weight and capped-brood area did not significantly differ among those hives placed at varying distances from the rice field. These results indicated that clothianidin spraying of the rice field increased the mortality of the honeybees, but did not always cause colony collapse.

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Looking for the causes of and solutions to the issue of honey bee colony losses

losses, managed colony population decline, and colony collapse disorder in the United States. J Apicult Res 2010, 49:134-136. 12. Jacques A, Laurent M, EPILOBEE Consortium, Ribière-Chabert M, Saussac M, Bougeard S, Budge GE, Hendrikx P, Chauzat M: A pan-European epidemiological study reveals honey bee colony survival depends on beekeeper education and disease control. PLoS ONE 2017, 12:e0172591. 13. Brodschneider R, Gray A, Adjlane N, Ballis A, Brusbardis V, Charrière JD, Chlebo R, Coffey MF, Dahle B, de Graaf DC, Dražić MM, Evans G, Fedoriak M, Forsythe I

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The Effect of Dietary Vitamin C on Carbohydrate Concentrations and Hydrolase Activity, During the Development of Honey Bee Worker Brood

Abstract

The colony collapse disorder is a growing problem world-wide. For this reason, we were prompted to search for natural and harmless agents that could improve the living conditions of honey bees. This group of agents includes exogenous antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, which boost natural immunity. We analysed the effect of vitamin C supplementation on carbohydrate metabolism in the developing honey bee worker brood. The total carbohydrate content and the concentrations of glycogen, trehalose, maltotriose, fructose, and glucose were estimated. The correlations between sugar content and the activity of the main hydrolases of carbohydrate metabolism - α-amylase, glucoamylase, trehalase, maltase, and sucrase - were determined. The addition of vitamin C to the diet of wintering bees did not impair their sugar metabolism. Vitamin C supplements exerted a positive effect by significantly increasing glycogen and trehalose concentrations in the initial phase of development and in newly emerged workers. Vitamin C did not induce significant changes in the developmental profile of carbohydrate degrading enzymes, except for the earliest stage of larval development when enzyme activity levels were below those noted in the control group.

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Nosema Ceranae DNA in Honey Bee Haemolymph and Honey Bee Mite Varroa Destructor/DNK Nosema Ceranae U Hemolimfi Pčela I Pčelinjem Krpelju Varroa Destructor

SK, Simons JF, Egholm M, Pettis JS, Lipkin WI: A metagenomic survey of microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder. Science 2007, 318:283-287. 16. Van der Zee R: Colony losses in the Netherlands. J Apic Res 2010, 49:121-123. 17. Higes M, Martín-Hernández R, Garrido-Bailón E, Botias C, García-Palencia P, Meana A: Regurgitated pellets of Merops apiaster as fomites of infective Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia) spores. Environ Microbiol 2008, 10:1374-1379. 18. Valera F, Martín-Hernández R, Higes M: Evaluation of large

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Single Assay Detection of Acute Bee Paralysis Virus, Kashmir Bee Virus and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus

., Egholm M., Pettis J. S., Lipkin W. I. (2007) - A metagenomic survey of microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder. Science , 318: 283-287. De Miranda J. R., Cordoni G., Budge G. (2010) - The Acute bee paralysis virus-Kashmir bee virus-Israeli acute paralysis virus complex. J. Invert. Pathol. , 103: 30-47. Drummond A. J., Ashton B., Buxton S., Cheung M., Cooper A., Duran C., Field M., Heled J., Kearse M., Markowitz S., Moir R., Stones-Havas S., Sturrock S., Thierer T., Wilson A. (2011) - Geneious v5.4, [online

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Honey Bee Infection Caused by Nosema spp. in Lithuania

.R. & Jabaji, S.H. (2011). Honeybee glands as possible infection reservoirs of Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis in naturally infected forager bees. J ournal of Applied Microbiology, 112 , 15–24. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05192.x Cox-Foster, D.L., Conlan, S., Holmes, E.C., Palacios, G., Evans, J.D., Moran, N.A., ... Lipkin, W.I. (2007). A metagenomic survey of microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder. Science, 318 , 283–287. DOI: 10.1126/science.1146498 Dainat, B., Evans, J.D., Chen, Y.P., Gauthier, L., Neumann, P. (2012). Predictive markers of honey

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Evaluation of results in research made in order to obtain a phytotherapeutic product for the prophylaxis and fight against nosema in bees

) and contaminates honey in Australia, Apidologie 2009, 40: 117-123. 8. Higes M, Martin-Hernandez R, Botias C, Bailon E.G, Gonzalez-Porto A.V, Barrios L, Jesus del Nozal M, Bernal JL, Jimenez, JJ, Palencia P.G, Meana A. How natural infection by Nosema ceranae causes honeybee colony collapse, Environ. Microbiol. 2008b, 10: 2659-2669. 9. Savu Vasilică, Şapcaliu Agripina, Patologia albinelor, Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine, 2013, vol. 1: 134-153. 10. Chen Y, Evans JD, Smith IB, Pettis JS. Nosema ceranae is a long

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Determination of spore longevity and viability of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae according to storage conditions

PG, Meana A. How natural infection by Nosema ceranae causes honeybee colony collapse. Environ Microbiol 2008; 10(10): 2659-2669. 4. Chen PY, Evans JD, Murphy C, Gutell R, Zuker M, Gundensen-Rindal D, Pettis JS. Morphological, molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Nosema ceranae, a microsporidian parasite isolated from the European honey bee, Apis mellifera. J Eukaryot Microbiol 2009; 56(2): 142-147. 5. Oldroyd BP. What’s Killing American Honey Bees? PLoS Biol 2007; 5(6): e168. 6. Zander E. Tierische Parasiten

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