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The nineteenth century colonial setting of Aotearoa NZ is the most distant from the cradle of European Enlightenment that sparked new understandings of childhood, learning and education and spearheaded new approaches to the care and education of young children outside of the family home. The broader theme of the Enlightenment was about progress and the possibilities of the ongoing improvement of peoples and institutions. The young child was seen as a potent force in this transformation and a raft of childhood institutions, including the 19th century infant school, kindergarten, and crèche were a consequence. The colonisation and settlement of Aotearoa NZ by European settlers coincided with an era in which the potency of new aspirations for new kinds of institutions for young children seeded. It is useful in the 21st century to reframe the various waves of colonial endeavour and highlight the dynamic interfaces of being colonised for the indigenous populations; being a colonial for the settler populations; and the power and should be purposed of the colonising cultures of Europe. It can be argued that in the context of ECE neither the indigenous nor settler populations of Aotearoa NZ were passive recipients of European ECE ideas but, separately and together, forged new understandings of childhood and its institutions; enriched and shaped by the lessons learned in the colonial setting of Aotearoa NZ.
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Can pre-colonisation of the soil substrate increase the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae)?
The effects of soil pre-colonisation with entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae and S. arenarium on the mortality of Tenebrio molitor larvae were tested under laboratory conditions. The soil was inhabited with the nematodes for 7 days prior to the addition of the larvae. Nematode concentrations of 50 and 500 infective juveniles per box were used. S. carpocapsae reacted to pre-colonisation negatively and the efficacy decreased at the concentrations tested. S. arenarium showed generally low efficacy against Tenebrio molitor larvae and pre-colonisation showed only a slight positive effect on the efficacy of this species. S. feltiae increased its efficacy at the concentration of 500 infective juveniles per box compared with other tested nematodes.