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Funding of Collective Actions1 Klára Hamuľáková Faculty of Law, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic HAMUĽÁKOVÁ, Klára. Funding of Collective Actions. International and Com- parative Law Review, 2016, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 127–144. DOI: 10.1515/iclr-2016- 0019. Summary: The paper deals with the questions of funding of collective actions. Proper funding has significant influence on the right to the access to the court and is a precon- dition for the efficient course of litigation in general, specifically in connection with a

(UNIDROIT). ELIÁŠ, Karel. Zpráva o VII. zasedání Kolegia pro občanské právo při Ústavu státu a práva AV ČR, v. v. i., k problematice hromadných žalob. Právník , č. 6, 2019, p. 613–616. ELISCHER, David. Hromadné žaloby mezi Českem a Evropou. Právní rádce [online]. ISSN 1213-7693. FALLA Elodie. Powers of the judge in collective redress proceedings. Research paper submitted to BEUC, 2012, 341 p. HAMUĽÁKOVÁ, Klára. Funding of Collective Actions. International and Comparative Law Review , 2016

), Gatewatching: Collaborative Online News Production, New York, Peter Lang. CARR R. L., PRATT C. B., AND HERRERA I. C . (2012), Social Media for Crisis Communication on Japan’s 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. A Critical Textual Analysis, [in:] Duhé S.C. (ed.), New Media and Public Relations, 293–301, 2nd ed., New York, Lang. CORRIGALL-BROWN C., AND WILKES R . (2012), Picturing Protest: The Visual Framing of Collective Action by First Nations in Canada, “American Behavioral Scientist”, vol. 56, issue 2, 223-243. DUHACHEK A . (2005), Coping: A Multidimensional, Hierarchical, Framework

REFERENCES Agrawal, A., Ostrom, E., 2001. Collective Action, Property Rights, and Decentralization in Resource Use in India and Nepal . Politics&Society, 29(4), December, 485–514. Ahn, T.K., Ostrom, E., Schmidt, D., Shupp, R., Walker, J., 2001. Cooperation in PD games: Fear, greed, and history of play . Public Choice 106, 137–155. Bielecki, A., Nieszporska, S., 2017. The proposal of philosophical basis of the health care system . Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 20(1), 23–35. Declaration of Alma-Ata, International Conference on Primary Health Care , 1978

) // Rosenblum, Nancy L., and Robert C. Post. Civil Society and Government. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002. Rothstein, Robert L. Alliances and Small Powers. New York: Columbia University Press, 1968. Sandler, Todd. Global Collective Action. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Skėrytė, Jūratė. "Goro gubernatoriaus netenkina lietuvių pastangos [Lithuania"s Efforts Do Not Satisfy the Ghor Governor]." (November 15, 2007) //


In the field of early childhood research children’s mobility is usually discussed only in terms of physical activity in the preschool yard. More seldom is it discussed in terms of mobility practices and how young children move in public spaces. With unique detailed video-ethnographic data on mobile preschools and a new combination of theories on space, mobilities and peer culture this article analyses how young children negotiate mobility practices and engage in embodied learning in the collective preschool routine of walking in line. Two empirical examples of walking in line in contrasting public spaces show how the mobile preschool group moves in space as a collective body co-produced by children’s and teachers’ individual bodies. It is argued that walks in line are not merely a form of ‘transport’ between places but are important as social and learning spaces. While walking in line, children collectively ‘do’ space in diverse ways depending on where and how they move, and in relation to where and when teachers negotiate safety issues. In this process, the spaces, activities and routines alike are transformed.

and information provision) to collective services (such as meetings and networking). The core question investigated in this paper is how these services are adapted to ensure durability of the organisation over the long- and the short term. Three main theoretical approaches are used: collective action leading to service bundling, transaction cost economics, and theories of organisational evolution. Additionally, the role of the Irish state is examined. Collective action, service bundling and free riders It has been widely recognised that associations face managerial

revolution individually rational? Groups and individuals in revolutionary collective action,’ Rationality and Society , vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 139–166. Goodin, R. E. & Tilly, C. (2008), The Oxford Handbook of Contextual Political Analysis , Oxford: Oxford Handbooks Online. Granovetter, M. ( 1978), ‘Threshold models of collective behavior,’ American Journal of Sociology , vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 1420–1443. Gross, T. (2002), ‘Anthropology of collective memory: Estonian national awakening revisited


This paper studies the different positions and the polarization among Slovak political elites due to the European migration crisis and the Union´s migration policy. The inability of collective action at the supranational level is first grounded at the national level. From this basis, the authors differentiate the various standpoints of the selected political leaders and parties towards the current migration wave. Based on this cleavage, we seek to demonstrate the patterns of modern day political party leadership in Slovakia and, secondly, to compare the political response and agendas across the Slovak party system.


Addressing poverty issues in the developing world, and hunger issues in particular, is top of the global list of collective actions. However, in spite of the right-to-food commitments taken by global leaders and the international community, the problems are persisting. This article analyses the concept of “right-to-food” from legal and political points of view and looks at the shortcomings for its implementation. A governance analysis is provided together with recommendations for improvement. The experience of the European Union of economic coordination is utilised for improving intergovernmental cooperation for food security. The Food Security Implementation Procedure is considered as a soft method based on a voluntary participation with an objective to strengthen international coordination, national ownership and effective involvement of the non-public sector.