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., OLINIC, S., MANEA, P., UŢĂ: “Compacted soil columns for foundations on collapsible soils. Laboratory and in-situ experimental study” . Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering , Paris, France, 2013. [5]. *** NP 125 – “Normativ privind fundarea construcţiilor pe pământuri sensibile la umezire” . Bucharest, Romania, 2010 . [6]. *** AND 530 - “Instructiuni privind controlul calitatii terasamentelor rutiere” . Bucharest, Romania, 2012 .

1 Introduction The construction of foundations on collapsible soils is considered one of the major problems of geotechnical engineering. It may be difficult, expensive or even impossible to alter the design of railways, highways or power lines to avoid the area where such a soil is found. On the other hand, construction on natural collapsible soil without precautions can lead to dramatic and undesirable results. Human activities are undoubtedly the main cause of collapse of most of the soils.These activities include irrigation works, pipe line constructions and

biotechnologies, K.:А+S, 2011. [5] Sleptsov О.S., Designing space planning structure of school buildings in challenging engineering and geological conditions (collapsible soil and undermining areas ), Doctoral Thesis, Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture, КievZNIIEP, Kiev 1986. [6] Yurchuk L.М., Mechanism of establishing education constituency , http://academy.gov.ua/ej/ej12/txts/10ylmuoo.pdf (online: 14/10/2019). [7] Establishing hub school, https://mon.gov.ua/ua/osvita/zagalna-serednya-osvita/oporni-shkoli/stvorennya-opornoyi-shkoli (online: 14/10/2019).

single pile . Progress in Civil, Architectural and Hydraulic Engineering IV: Proceedings, London, 343-346. 5. Mashhour, I 2016. Experimental study on negative skin friction on piles in collapsible soils due to inundation : a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Civil Engineering) / Ibrahim Mashhour; Concordia University. – Quebec, 171. 6. Sedin, V and Bikus, K and Kovba, V 2017. Investigation of redistribution of pile foundation forces under successive loading of its elements. Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports, No. (27), 121-129. 7. Poulos, H

-Encased Granular Columns in Porous Collapsible soil, Geosynthetics International, 16 , 6, 433-451, 2009. 7. T. AYADAT, A. M. HANNA Encapsulated Stone Columns as A Soil Improvement Technique for Collapsible Soil, Ground Improvement, 9 , 4, 137-147, 2005. 8. C. DI PRISCO, A. GALLI, E. CANTARELLI, D. BONGIORNO, Georeinforced Sand Columns: Small Scale Experimental Tests and Theoretical Modeling, 8th Int. Conf. on Geosynthetics, 1685-1688, The Netherlands, 2006. 9. S. N. MALARVIZHI, K. ILAMPARUTHI, Comparative Study on the Behavior of Encased stone column and Conventional Stone

Romanian Waterfront Projects ”. 33th World PIANC Congress in San Francisco, USA [8] TSITSAS, G, Dimitriadi, V, Zekkos D, Ciortan R, Manea S, Dumitru, M (2015). “ Dynamic Compaction of Collapsible Soil –Case Study from a Motorway Project in Romania ”. XVI ECSMGE, Edinburgh, Scotland [9] TSITSAS, G, Ciortan R, Dogaru P., Miritoiu R., “ On the waterfront: case histories from soil improvement works ”. Geo-Environmental & Construction European Conference, Tirana, Albania 2015 [10] ASCE STANDARD ASCE/G-I 53-10 (2010). Compaction Grouting Consensus Guide [11] A

shear resistance of collapsible soils located in the city of Galati , Romania, ROMANIA, SGEM, Conference Procedings vol. II, pp. 395-410, ISI Web of Science database up to 2011 is 3, 2012 and 2013 - in process of indexing, Albena, Bulgaria. Călăraşu E., Dobrescu C.F., Siminea I. (2009). Decisive factors in evaluation of support elements in hazard, seismic risk and vulnerability analysis , Simpozion Ştiinţific cu participare internaţională “Protecţia mediului şi siguranţă alimentară”, Târgovişte, “Annals. Food Science and Technology”, vol. 10, Issue 2, pp.549

Behaviour on an Improved Collapsible Soil, 60 th Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, Arlington 2008, pp. 7.21a-1 - 7.21a-10. Stanciu A. Boti N. Lungu I. Donciu O. Case Study of a Water Tank Behaviour on an Improved Collapsible Soil, 60 th Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering Arlington 2008 7 21a-1 - 7.21a-10 [11] Szymczak Cz., Iwicki P., Mikulski T.: The analysis of failure of biological reactor in Gdańsk-East sewage plant (in Polish), Proceedings of XXIII Conference „Failures of structures 2007”, pp.773-780. Szymczak Cz. Iwicki

Géotechnique 56 1 57 62 [30] Li P., Vanapalli S., Li T. (2016) Review of collapse triggering mechanism of collapsible soils due to wetting. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Vol.8 Issue 2, 256–274. Li P. Vanapalli S. Li T. 2016 Review of collapse triggering mechanism of collapsible soils due to wetting Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 8 2 256 274 [31] Zainal A.E., Al-Ebadi L.H. (2016) The effect of varying degree of saturation on settlement rate of collapsible soils. Applied Research Journal, 2(1):27–42. Zainal A.E. Al-Ebadi L