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Philosophy of Mind and Action, 15(2). Dennett, D. (1991). Consciousness explained. Boston: Back Bay Books. Giere, R. (2004). Scientific cognition as distributed cognition. In P. Carruthers, S. Stich & M. Siegal (Eds.), The cognitive bases of science (pp. 286-299). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Giere, R. (2004a). The problem of agency in scientific distributed cognitive systems. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 4(3-4), 759-774. Greco, J. (2010). Achieving knowledge: A virtue-theoretic account of epistemic normativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hurley

: Algorithm and examples. Artificial Intelligence . 41: 1–63. Fikes, R., Hart, P; and Nilsson, N. 1972. Learning and Executing Generalized Robot Plans, Artificial Intelligence . 3: 251-288. Forbus, K. D.; and Hinrichs, T. R. 2006. Companion Cognitive Systems: A step towards human-level AI. AI Magazine . 27:83-95. Forgy, C. L. 1982. Rete: A fast algorithm for the many pattern/many object pattern match problem. Artificial Intelligence . 19: 17-37. Frackowiak R; and Markram H. 2015. The future of human cerebral cartography: a novel approach. Philosophical Transactions of

STUDIES IN LOGIC, GRAMMAR AND RHETORIC 48 (61) 2016 DOI: 10.1515/slgr-2016-0052 Robert Poczobut University of Bialystok Dariusz Surowik University of Bialystok INTRODUCTION Abstract. The problem of interfield integration in cognitive science has three closely connected aspects; they are to do with: a) the interdependencies be- tween the levels of organization of cognitive systems (the substantive aspect), b) the intertheoretic connections between the subdisciplines of cognitive science (the methodological aspect), and c) the organization of research and


The paper describes the nature of the concept in terminological research introspectively leading to a cognitively grounded framework and usage-based study in cognitive terminology, where conceptualization is revealed on the basis of the dynamic character of human scientific thinking, cognitive systems directly affecting terminological systems and professional discourse, and representing conceptual organization of special knowledge on the basis of linguistic and extra-linguistic factors.


The aim of this paper is to discuss the concept of distributed cognition (DCog) in the context of classic questions posed by mainstream cognitive science. We support our remarks by appealing to empirical evidence from the fields of cognitive science and ethnography. Particular attention is paid to the structure and functioning of a cognitive system, as well as its external representations. We analyze the problem of how far we can push the study of human cognition without taking into account what is underneath an individual’s skin. In light of our discussion, a distinction between DCog and the extended mind becomes important.


The following paper presents a proposal of a theoretical foundation for an application of distributed cognition in overcoming post-war traumas and related social conflicts. The distributed cognition theory states that the cognitive system is a structure distributed between internal-mental and external-objective social world representations across time and space. The basic issue of dialogue in distributed cognition is that distribution as information dissemination in each cognitive component functions in a systemic integrity. The presented perspective of overcoming traumas and war conflicts through dialogue refers to the following aspects of human activity: 1 - the perception of an environment as a construct of own life path and self-image; 2 - active creation of a desired world, life space and desired self; 3 - agentic cognitive mapping of an environment as a real, virtual and potential life space; 4 - a way of elastic control over an environment through discovering objectively present environmental affordances; 5 - achieving agency through discovering possibilities for action rather than barriers; 6 - making the cognitive system more flexible through a change in style of thinking to a constant state of openness to new meanings and values.


Learning through reflection is one of the most interesting experiences that students might have. It is considered a very good tool for self-assessing learning. It is believed that “teachers who promote reflective classrooms ensure that students are fully engaged in the process of making meaning” (Costa and Kallick, 2008, para.5).

Dewey (1991) was among the first researchers who based his work and research on the positive roles that reflection plays in fostering self-reflection and critical thinking. He has defined it as an active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief. Reflections give students opportunities to think and reflect about their learning and note down the obstacles they might face during this process.

The present study aims to investigate the impact of journal writing in promoting critical-thinking skills, and its impact on enhancing learning. The study uses two instruments, a student refection journal and an interview. Also, Marzano’s New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives developed in 2000 was used in the third phase of the study. This Taxonomy contains Three Systems: the Self-system, the Metacognitive system and the Cognitive system.

The overall study results show that reflection journals help students to become more independent learners, reflect on their learning experiences and identify the most useful learning strategies. Most importantly, all study participants hold positive attitudes towards reflection and they consider it as a valuable tool which can increase learning.


What is the class of possible semiotic systems? What kinds of systems could count as such systems? The human mind is naturally considered the prototypical semiotic system. During years of research in semiotics the class has been broadened to include i.e. living systems (Zlatev, 2002) like animals, or even plants (Krampen, 1992). It is suggested in the literature on artificial intelligence that artificial agents are typical examples of symbol-processing entities. It also seems that (at least some) semiotic processes are in fact cognitive processes. In consequence, it is natural to ask the question about the relation between semiotic studies and research on artificial cognitive systems within cognitive science. Consequently, my main question concerns the problem of inclusion or exclusion from the semiotic spectrum at least some artificial (computational) systems. I would like to consider some arguments against the possibility of artificial semiotic systems and I will try to repeal them. Then I will present an existing natural-language using agent of the SNePS system and interpret it in terms of Peircean theory of signs. I would like also to show that some properties of semiotic systems in Peircean sense could be also found in a discussed artificial system. Finally, I will have some remarks on the status of semiotics in general.


Until the 1990s map perception research was one of the main parts of cartography as a scientific discipline. In the last years of the century map perception research fell out of favor as cartographers turned their attention to the new computer technology. In the first decade of the 21th century the problems of map perception became more frequent in cartographic journals.

The article recaps the main problems, theories and research conducted in the twentieth century. The main concepts connected with map perception are discussed: use, utilization, reception and interpretation. These terms are used differently in different research orientations. The author assumes that the terms: reception, reading and perception are unambiguous and perception should be treated as a complex of active and highly interactive processes, leading to identification and understanding of the visible image. The relation of perception research with theory of cartography are presented in three stages of development of the research. In the first, intuitive stage, very important role played eminent cartographers Max Eckert and Karl Peucker, who appreciated the role of human perception in cartography. The second stage began with the research initiated by A.H. Robinson in the 1950s. In the stage perceptual research contributed to the physical aspects of cartographic signs and the psychophysical orientation emerged. Perception has been accepted as an element of cartographic communication theory, modeling theory and cartographic semiotics. The third stage of perceptual research emerged as a result of criticism of empirical research effects. Cartographers turned to methods and theories of cognitive psychology and cognitive orientation was a main paradigm of the research. Perception is perceived as one of the elements of the human cognitive system and considered in the context of higher lever cognitive processes, participating in cartographic information processing. Two methodological approaches can be set apart: theoretical and experimental. In the theoretical approach the processing succession is considered and some models of cartographic processing models were presented. The first decade of the 21st century opens a new stage of perceptual research. It can be named cognitive-digital as the research is based on computer software and is concentrated on cognitive aspects of map perception.

References Hurford, James. 1984. Language and number: The emergence of a cognitive system. Oxford: Blackwell. MacQueen, Donald. 2004. Developing methods for very-large-scale searches in Proquest Historical Newspapers Collection and Infotrac The Times Digital Archive. Journal of English Linguistics 32 (2): 124-143. MacQueen, Donald. 2010. The integration of million into the English system of number words: A diachronic study. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. MacQueen, Donald. 2014. American English influence on British English at the height of the British Empire: A case of