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Today’s educational institutions are expected to create learning opportunities independent of time and place, to offer easily accessible learning environments and interpersonal communication opportunities. Accordingly, higher education institutions develop strategies to meet these expectations through teaching strategies, such as e-learning, blended learning, mobile learning, etc., by using teaching technologies. These new technology-based teaching strategies are mainly shaped by decision-makers in education. This study seeks to analyse the individual factors that affect learners’ mode of teaching and learning delivery preferences. In this study, blended and online learning is considered as preferences of learners’ mode of teaching and learning delivery. The individual factors discussed in this research are cognitive learning strategies, e-learning readiness, and motivation. The data were obtained from the pre-service teachers at the end of the academic semester when they experienced online and blended learning. Data were analysed using optimal scaling analysis. The analysis method provides a two-dimensional centroid graph which shows the correlations between the variable categories. According to study findings, there is a correlation between the preferences of the learning environment, and the constructs of self-efficacy, e-learning motivation, and task value. It can be said that the motivational variables are more effective in the learning environment preference. The students with high task value, e-learning motivation, and self-efficacy preferred studying in blended learning environments. Cognitive strategies, self-directed learning, learner control, and test anxiety factors are independent of the learners’ learning delivery preferences.


The present study approaches Anna Burns’s novel Milkman (2018) via the lens of Leahy’s Emotional Schema Therapy (EST) (2019) in order to examine the model’s pros and cons for literary analysis. The study focuses on the protagonist’s emotional schemas which are shaped by her beliefs, interpretations and emotional appraisals of her environment. The analysis is carried out on both textual and extra-textual levels. The textual level focuses on character-society relationships and her emotional responses to the demands of her context. The extra-textual level concerns readers and investigates how the protagonist’s emotional appraisals and interpretations influence readers’ emotional schemas, which in the process of reading become either confirmed or restructured. While textual analysis displays the protagonist’s emotional development, the findings of the extra-textual analysis accentuate the therapeutic role that literary texts can play by addressing readers’ emotional schemas.

both the incidence and prevalence of injuries and other musculoskeletal conditions increase with age ( 4 , 5 , 6 ) the longer life expectancy that is being faced globally will result in greater proportion of people suffering from locomotor impairment. Thus, more comprehensive rehabilitation and training practice is necessary. Currently, motor imagery [MI] that refers to mental representation of an action without any concomitant body movement ( 7 ), is a widely used cognitive strategy to enhance functional performance for both sports-based ( 8 , 9 ) and therapeutic


As the problem-solving methodology of design thinking has gained legitimacy in business and educational environments, this article suggests we also think about incorporating “art thinking” into approaches in design pedagogy. To study what skills and techniques can be useful in other disciplines, we can first review the stages of the creative process which are centered around preparation, incubation, ideation, illumination, and evaluation. Within those stages, we can tease out specific elements unique to the artistic process that can be particularly useful, including mindsets of emotional engagement, intuition, and tolerance of ambiguity as well as cognitive strategies such as the use of metacognition, resource banks, generators and constraints, prolonged research, problem-creation, conversation with the work, closure delay, and reflection and thematic coherence. Emphasizing these elements and strategies in design pedagogy can expand possibilities for creativity and innovation.


This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when information is fully private and we allow for communication a state of anomie can result. If some social control mechanisms are available, social stability can be maintained. The less efficient the social control mechanisms however, the more restrictive rules will be needed to sustain the social norms. Furthermore not all cognitive strategies for interpreting received messages are equally effective. Strategies based on reputation are better than strategies based on profit analysis.

Dual-task Practice of Temporally Structured Movement Sequences Augments Integrated Task Processing, but not Automatization

After initial learning, a one-finger key stroke sequence, defined by a specific relative timing pattern (temporal structure) and absolute total movement time (temporal parameter), was practiced (with KR provided) either under dual-task conditions (experimental group), or under single-task conditions (control group). During dual-task practice, the key stroke sequence (i.e., the primary-task) was always executed in parallel to one of two cognitively demanding secondary tasks (subtracting numbers, or sorting marbles). Secondary tasks were alternated every 20 practice trials. Before (Pre-test) and after practice (Post-test), performance in each group was assessed under single-task and under dual-task conditions (no KR during tests). From Pre- to Post-test, primary-task performance in both groups significantly increased (relative timing in particular). Also, after practice dual-task costs found during Pre-test in both groups were still prevalent in the control group, but completely vanished in the experimental group with respect to those task combinations that were practiced before. However, when a new secondary task (repeating letters) was introduced, dual-task costs fully reappeared in the experimental group with respect to relative timing of the key stroke sequence. These results contradict the notion of readily acquiring automatic control in the course of dual-task practice by "Structural Displacement" (Blischke & Reiter, 2002), but they are well in line with the concept of developing cognitive strategies for "Integrated Task Processing" (Manzey, 1993). Thus, impact of dual-task practice on motor sequence production may be different from that on motor parameter control. In this context, implications of recent findings from neuropsychology on cortical systems engaged in the pursuit of concurrent behavioural goals (cf. Charron & Koechlin, 2010) are discussed.


This article is an attempt to review the most recent phonetic literature on the application of questionnaires in phonetic studies. In detail, we review the scope of pronunciation questionnaire-based surveys with respect to Polish and non-Polish students of English. In addition, this paper aims to examine European students’ beliefs and attitudes towards their own English pronunciation and is also intended to provide some arguments for or against the use of foreign-accented rather than native models of pronunciation in phonetic instruction.

The data come from three groups of informants, namely: Italian, Spanish and Polish students of English. With respect to foreign, non-Polish respondents, the study was conducted at the University of Salento in Italy and the University in Vigo, Spain within the framework of the Erasmus Teacher Mobility Programme in two consecutive academic years: i.e. 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. As regards Polish respondents, our research involved subjects from six different tertiary schools, i.e. five universities and one college, located in various parts of Poland.

On balance, the results of our study give an insight into the phonetic preferences of adult European advanced students of English with reference to the importance of good native-like pronunciation, the aims of pronunciation study, factors contributing to phonetic progress and their self-study pronunciation learning strategies. Our findings point to the fact that students of English wish to speak with good pronunciation, set a high native-like standard for themselves, report having benefited from their phonetic instruction and exposure to native English and that they work on their pronunciation by means of various, mostly cognitive, strategies.

Rather than casting new light on teaching pronunciation, the outcome of this study is consistent with the findings of other research on foreign students’ choice of preferred pronunciation model, which is undeniably native rather than foreign-accented.

References BIŁOZOR A., 2013, Development of a Decision-Making Algorithm for Determination of the Optimal Land Use Function , Real Estate Management and Valuation, No. 21(3), pp: 15–24. BORYS T., 1991, Kwalimetria. Teoria i zastosowanie , Wydawnictwo Akademia ekonomiczna w Krakowie – Instytut Towaroznawstwa, Kraków. CANTOR N., NOREM J.K., NIEDENTHAL P.M., LANGSTON C.A., 1987, Life Tasks, Self-Concept Ideals, and Cognitive. Strategies in a Life Transition , Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, No. 53(6), pp:1178-1191. CIEŚLAK I., SZUNIEWICZ K., GERUS

References Borys, T., 1991: Kwalimetria. Teoria i zastosowanie (Qualimetry. Theory and application - in Polish), Krakow: Wydawnictwo Akademia ekonomiczna w Krakowie - Instytut Towaroznawstwa. Cantor, N., Norem, J.K., Niedenthal, P.M.and Langston, C.A., 1987: Life Tasks, Self- Concept Ideals, and Cognitive Strategies in a Life Transition, In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, No. 53(6), pp. 1178-1191. Cieślak, I., Szuniewicz, K. and Gerus-Gościewska, M., 2013: Evaluation of the Natural Value of Land Before and after Planning Procedures, In: Rural

and disease: dietary, environ mental and immunotherapy approaches. J Alzheimers Dis. 2008, 15: 685-707. 23. Cotman CW., Head E., Muggenburg BA., Cotman CW. and Milgram NW.: Brain aging in the canine: a diet enriched in antioxidants reduces cognitive dysfunction. Neurobio. Aging 2002, 23: 809-818. 24. Milgram NW., Head E., Muggenburg BA., Holowachuk D., Murphey H., Estrada J., Ikeda- Duglas CJ., Zicker SC., Cotman CW.: Landmark discrimination learning in the dog: effects of age, an antioxidant fortifi ed diet, and cognitive strategy. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 2002, 26