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This paper represents an index model developed for the assessment of risk caused by river floods. The main purpose of this model is to evaluate the flood risk in the western coastal region of Mazandaran Province/Iran. The model assesses the risk at triple components, i.e. the flood occurrence probability, vulnerability and consequences, through identification and evaluation of effective criteria categorized into seven indexes (environmental, technical, economic, social, depth, population and sensitivity ones) that are involved in all stages of flooding (source, pathway and receptor). The flood risk in the developed model is defined by a dimensionless magnitude called as risk score between 0 and 100 for each zone of the area under assessment by calculating and combining of two newly defined factors: occurrence and vulnerability factor and impact factor. The model was applied in a case study, the Nowshahr flood in 2012. The results showed that: (i) the flood risk zoning was compared with observed data for aspect of the damages, and general agreement between them was obtained; (ii) for urban zones, which surrounded by two rivers, would easily be in critical condition and rescue operations face difficulties; and (iii) it is necessary to review the location of the emergency services, according the flood risk zoning.
stations – Kasprowy Wierch (7.4 m·s -1 ) and Śnieżka (14.2 m·s -1 ). The variability is due to the diverse land relief characteristics of mountain areas. In the lowland part of the country, high wind speed was observed in the north, in Łeba (5.8 m·s -1 ) and other parts of the Coastalregion, as well as in Chojnice (4.6 m·s -1 ) and Szczecin (4.7 m·s -1 ) in the Lakeland region. High wind speed was also observed in Rzeszów in the Upland region. Its value was 5.2 m·s -1 ( Table 2 ). In Poland, the highest wind speed values occur in winter months. This is explained with
space exterior are most significant and noticeable in nature and geographic features. Hence, there are three regions within 190 km air distance (between the furthest east and the furthest north). They are: the Costal, the Middle and the Northern regions ( Doderović 2004 ). The Coastalregion, the further eastern, and the hottest part of the Adriatic seaside, has got the typical Mediterranean features. It is separated from the rest of land by high mountain ranges. Besides beautiful natural conditions for tourism development, costal industry and some agricultural
Assessment of Regional Bioclimatic Contrasts in Poland
Traveling is one of most popular tourism activity. Usually it is associated with the change of climate conditions. In a short time we can move to different environment and our organisms are under great pressure of atmospheric stimuli which have diverse level and range of variability in comparison to home location. The general climate information seem to be insufficient to be prepared to new conditions. The paper presents new complex index which can be used to assess contrasts of bioclimatic conditions (BCI). It was applied to compare differences in bioclimatic conditions in six stations represented various bioclimate regions of Poland: Koszalin (Coastal region), Białystok (North-East region), Warszawa and Wrocław (Central region), Rzeszów (South-East region) and Hala Gąsienicowa (Tatras, Carpathians region).
It is evident that practice and praxis have significantly contributed to knowledge generation in the Tanzanian coastal belt, especially where Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) programmes have been adopted and practiced such as Tanga, Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Lindi, and the Coastal region (; ). In spite of such learning evidences, users of generated natural resource data in the coastal area tend to employ practice and praxis interchangeably, conflating the two concepts together; leading to a situation where one may hardly ascribe generated knowledge appropriately to contexts that favour occurrence of each of the two constructs. The paper adopts ethnographic approach in a defined coastal case study to examine contexts and situations that signals “conflationˮ and it employs examples that may help readers of the article to disambiguate praxis from practice.
A new nematode species, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) arii sp. n. (Anisakidae), is described from male and female specimens found in the intestine of two species of marine siluriform fishes, the spotted catfish Arius maculatus (Thunberg) (Ariidae) (type host) and the striped eel catfish Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg) (Plotosidae) from the coastal region of the Gulf of Thailand, Thailand. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examinations, the new species differs from other nine representatives of the subgenus Ichthyascaris Wu, 1949 mainly in the length of spicules (210–333 μm), body length of gravid females (10–17 mm), and in the presence of small cuticular spines or protuberances on the tail tip of both sexes and 21–30 pairs of preanal and 8 pairs of postanal papillae in the male. This is the first species of this subgenus reported from fishes of the order Siluriformes and the first species of the subgenus Ichthyascaris Wu, 1949 recorded from the Gulf of Thailand.
The paper deals with the sandy coastal zone at Lubiatowo in Poland (the south Baltic Sea). The study comprises experimental and theoretical investigations of hydrodynamic and lithodynamic processes in the coastal region located close to the seaward boundary of the surf zone and beyond the surf zone. The analysis is based on field data collected at the IBW PAN Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo. The data consist of wind velocity reconstructed from the long-term wave climate, deep-water wave buoy records and sea bottom soil parameters. Nearbed flow velocities induced by waves and currents, as well as bed shear stresses are theoretically modelled for various conditions to determine sediment motion regimes in the considered area. The paper discusses the possibility of occasional intensive sediment transport and the occurrence of distinct sea bed changes at bigger water depths.
Red sand dunes occur in the coastal plains of south east and west of Tamil Nadu, India between the coordinates of 8°00′ to 9°30′ N; 77°18′ to 79° 00′ E. OSL dating of these sands indicated aggradations between ∼16-9 ka and ∼9-3 ka in the west and east coasts respectively. Dating results from inland red dunes at the foothills of Western Ghats show a break in deposition at ∼6 ka and aggradation since ∼2 ka. The sand aggradations in the west coast occurred during the transition period when SW monsoon in the area was reestablishing. The dunes attained their stability by 9 ka. In the coastal region, the aggradations were controlled by sea level changes and a local recycling of earlier dunes (in the east coast). In the inland areas, the dune building was controlled by sand supply from fluvial sources.
Chelon caeruleum sp. nov. is described as a new species of Chelon encountered in the Rashid coastal region of the Mediterranean Sea, Egypt. With this finding, the new species is the sixth member of the genus Chelon. Chelon caeruleum sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: colouration of body is dark bluish grey dorsally and the sides are blue; head length 20.5 to 21.6% SL; head width 13 to 13.5% SL; pre-first dorsal fin length 50% SL; eye diameter 4.6 to 5.2% SL; postorbital length 10.7 to 11.1% SL; unbranched pyloric caeca are 2 short and 4 long; a pair of long (one longer than the other), spine-like neural postzygapophyse on the second vertebra. DNA of Chelon caeruleum sp. nov. and five mullet species (Mugil cephalus, Liza carinata, Liza ramada, Liza aurata, and Chelon labrosus) was extracted then amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. The mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequence analysis confirmed that Chelon caeruleum sp. nov. is distinct from other congeners of Chelon and it is a different species of Chelon which is new to science.