Erika Škvareková, Marianna Tomašková, Gabriel Wittenberger and Štefan Zelenák
The purpose of this article is to determine the environmental impacts of underground gasification on the population and to analyze the risk of underground coal gasification (UCG) activities using selected risk assessment methods. Coal gas is a regular part of coal deposits and its extraction also allows the use of coal deposits that cannot be extracted by traditional methods. These technologies bring both positive and negative aspects. The paper points out the risk analysis, hazard identification and assessment during the operation of UCG technology using a risk graph and a risk matrix. Identified risks to workers that cannot be reduced should be taken into consideration and appropriate safeguard should be used. For each risk, it is necessary to inform employees about regular education and training. From worldwide experience with this technology, it is possible to analyze risks in Slovakia. Actual gasification produces polluting gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides, tar and ash, and creates a risk that may occur on and under the surface of the site depending on the geological and hydrogeological structure of the deposits. Possible measures to mitigate the adverse effects are proposed for the implementation of this technology. Coal is still one of the main domestic primary energy sources. Currently, only 5 out of 19 deposits in the Slovak Republic are used. Underground gasification could increase the use of Slovak coal and brown coal deposits.
The article deals with the issue of the release of methane from coal seams and its emission to the atmosphere from the mines of Katowice Coal Holding Company in the years of 1997-2011. This period is characterized by organizational changes in Polish mining industry involving liquidation or a merger of mines, an increase in both the concentration of coal mining activity, and the depth of the exploitation at which the amount of methane in coal seams grows ever larger. The analysis of the variation in the methane emission from the coal mines in that period points out a decline in the intensity of the emission until 2005, probably owing to the liquidation of some mines, later, but in the years of 2006-2010 - a considerable increase in both the absolute methane emission of the mines and the methane emission to the atmosphere despite a dropping coal extraction. This signifies that mining activity takes place in increasingly difficult gas conditions prevailing at great depths. Despite a slight decrease in both the absolute methane emission and methane emission to the atmosphere in 2011, a continuously growing trend of this phenomenon should be expected in the future. A similar tendency is also visible in the whole Upper Silesian Coal Basin, however the methane emission peak falls in 2008. In order to curb the growth of the amount of the emitted methane, it should be commercially utilized. Particularly vital is considering methane as an unconventional resource, following the example of other countries.
Pavlína Pustějovská, Vojtěch Byrtus, Simona Jursová and Edyta Kardas
Possibilities Of Use Of Degassing And Carbon Gas In Industry. Degassing Gas Represents A Waste During Coal Mining So Far And This Issue Is Not Effectively Solved In Ostrava Region Up Till Now Ecological Aspects, Safety, Economic Aspects. Coal Deposits Represent A Special Case In Which The Deposit Is Both A Source Of Coal And Reservoir Of Gas. For The Thing Is That, In The Process Of Coalification Of Plant Residue, Coal Bed Gas Came Into Being Of Which The Main Component Is Methane. Gas From Mining Degassing Can Be Used As A Substitute Fuel For The Blowing Of Blast Furnaces. This Would Not Only Make It Possible To Reduce The Specific Consumption Of Coke, But Also Contribute To A Better Blast Furnace. An Economic Effect Is Also Negligible If We Characterize Degassing Gas As Waste Gas.
Mirosław Wierzbicki, Norbert Skoczylas and Mateusz Kudasik
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Bangon Pinkaew, Paraya Assanasen and Chaweewan Bunnag
Hospital, Mahidol University.
Conflict of interest statement The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
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