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References 1. Cooke, S., Suski, C., Ostrand, K., Tufts, B. & Wahl, D. (2004). Behavioral and physiological assessment of low concentrations of clove oil anesthetic for handling and transporting largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), Aquaculture, 239, 509-529. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.06.028 2. Feng, G., Zhuang, P., Zhang, L., Kynard, B., Shi, X., Duan, M., Liu, J. & Huang, X. (2011). Effect of anaesthetics MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon, J. Appl. Ichthyol., 27, 2, 595-599. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439

Various aspects of piscine toxicology

In opposition to toxicology of mammals piscine toxicology is closely connected with the conditions of external environment. The aquatic environment is necessary for embryonic development and after hatching during short or long-lasting larval period of most fish species. An aquatic environment is polluted by many industrial and agricultural wastes. Ammonia as a toxic and common compound in water have negative influence for aquaculture especially in intensive fish culture, recirculation system and hatchery facilities. Acute toxicity of ammonia was investigated in carp Cyprinus carpio L. and developmental stages of chub Squalius cephalus L. Changes in the peripheral blood characteristics and hemopoietic tissues of carp occurred after exposition to ammonia in acute tests and 3, 5 and 10 weeks sublethal concetration. The observed increase of the concentration of most amino acids in fish intoxicated with amonia suggests that the process reflects detoxication of ammonia which takes place both in the brain and muscles after 3 weeks of exposition. Phenol intoxication tests induced considerable unfavorable changes in the blood and dystrophic and necrobiotic lesions in tissues of fish leading to dysfunction both hemopoietic and reproductive processes.

In study on fish reproduction disruptors the influence of oxygenated polycyclic hydrocarbons (17-β-estradiol, 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone, 1,6-dihydroxynaphthalene and 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene) and oxygenated monocyclic hydrocarbons (phenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, 4-n-buthylphenol, 4-sec-buthylphenol; 4-tert-buthylphenol) was assessed using histopathological methods. It was established that examined oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons both natural (17-β-estradiol and 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and synthetic can disrupt the differentiation of primary and secondary sex traits in pikeperch Sander lucioperca L. The chronic activity of these "biomimetics of estrogen" can lead to the disappearance of natural fish population. In vivo and in vitro tests were used to exam dibutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate impact on the development of the reproductive system of pikeperch. Additional as multigenerational studies are needed to clarify influence long term exposure of fish to environmental concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

Hydrogen peroxide used in fish therapy is known to be toxic for sensitive species. In our work safe concentrations and exposure times was evaluated for ide Leuciscus idus L. and pike Esox lucius L. fry. The intensity of lesions in gills, skin, pseudobranch and thymus of exposed fish were connected with the time of bath.

Actually anesthetics are routinely required during stressful procedures with fish, but data regarding the safety of individual anesthetics to different fish species are still few and insufficient. The influence of clove oil, MS-222 and 2-phenoxyaethanol anesthesia on fish organism was investigated in our faculty with cooperation with Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, Vodnany, Czech Republic.

References [1] Bhagat, A., Caruso, G., Micali, M., Parisi, S., Foods of non-animal origin. Chemistry, technology, inspection procedures . Springer. (2016). [2] Bhunia, A. K., Foodborne microbial pathogens. Mechanisms and pathogenesis . Springer. (2018). [3] Buchanan, R. L., Gorris, L. G. M., Hayman, M. M., Jackson, T. C., Whiting, R. C., A review of Listeria monocytogenes . An update on outbreaks, virulence, dose-response, ecology, and risk assessments. Food Control , 75. (2017) 1–13. [4] Cui, H., Zhang, C., Li, C., Lin, L., Antimicrobial mechanism of clove

. 9. Kukade, M. V., A. J. Moshayedi, D. C. Gharpure. Electronic-nose (E-nose) for Recognition of Cardamom, Nutmeg and Clove Oil Odor. – Electron. Its Interdiscip. Appl. (NCAEIA-2014), 2014. 10. Alekseev, V. V., V. S. Konovalova, E. N. Sedunova. Information-Measurement and Control System “Smart House” as Object of Practice-Oriented Training of Master’s Degree “Instrumentation Technology”. – In: 2017 International Conference, Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies (IT&QM&IS’17), IEEE, 2017, pp. 612-615. 11. Sabilla, S. I., R

). Cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes: a review. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 21, 764–771. DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000119. 18. Suryawanshi, J.A.S. (2011). An overview of Citrus aurantium used in treatment of various diseases. Afr. J. Plant Sci. 5, 390–395. 19. Iversena, M., Finstada, B., McKinleyc, R.S. & Eliassenb, R.A. 2003. The efficacy of metomidate, clove oil, Aqui-™ and Benzoak® as anaesthetics in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L .) smolts, and their potential stress-reducing capacity. Aquacult. 221, 549–566. DOI: 10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00111-X. 20. Bhowmik, D., Kumar, K

E. 2000 – Citrus phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by molecular markers – Theor. Appl. Genet. 100: 1155-1166. Njau E.A., Alcorn J., Ndakidemi P., Chirino-Trejo N., Buza J. 2014 – Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of crude extracts of Rauvolfia caffra var. caffra (Apocynaceae) from Tanzania – Int. J. Biol. 6: 156-167. Pongsak R., Parichat P. 2009 – Protective effect of clove oil-supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococcus garvieae infection in tilapia – Biosci. Biotech. Bioch. 73: 2085-2089. Repine J.E., Fox R

composition of Erwinia strains studied with microfluid chip technology. Chromatographia, 70, 1645–1650. doi: 10.1365/s10337-009-1374-7. Huang Q, Lakshman DK (2010): Effect of clove oil on plant pathogenic bacteria and bacterial wilt of tomato and geranium. Journal of Plant Pathology, 92, 701–707. Karami-Osboo R, Khodaverdi M, Ali-Akbari F (2010): Antibacterial effect of effective compounds of Satureja hortensis and Thymus vulgaris essential oils against Erwinia amylovora . Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 12, 35–45. Kloucek P, Smid J, Frankova A

. Environ Health Perspect 1979;30:47-51. doi: 10.1289/ehp.793047 26. Marin Municipal Water District Vegetation Management Plan DRAFT-1/1/2010, Herbicide Risk Assessment. Chapter 6 - Clove oil (Eugenol). Available at 27. Liu Z, Niu W, Yang X, Wang Y. Effects of combined acupuncture and eugenol on learning-memory ability and antioxidation system of hippocampus in Alzheimer disease rats via olfactory system stimulation. J Tradit Chin Med 2013;33:399-402. doi: 10.1016/S0254-6272(13)60186-7 28. Wills ED. Lipid peroxide

acidilactici as probiotic candidate in diets for beluga ( Huso huso ) modifies biochemical parameters and improves immune functions. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. 44, 1099-1107. Gokoglu, N., Yerlikaya, P., 2008. Inhibition effects of grape seed extracts on melanosis formation in shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris ). International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 43, 1004-1008. Hajek, G., Klyszejko, B., Dziaman, R., 2006. The anaesthetic effects of clove oil on common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Acta ichthyologica et piscatoria. 2, 93-97. Hoseinifar, S.H., Zoheiri, F

, holotype; K, paratypes. Monogeneans The gills were removed and observed in filtered seawater for mono-geneans. Monogeneans, located using a stereo-microscope were removed alive (dead for the few specimens from H. griseus ) from between the gill lamellae and were studied either directly or fixed, slightly flattened, between a slide and cover slip. Monogeneans were fixed either with ethanol or Bouin’s fixative. Specimens were stained with carmine, cleared in clove oil and mounted in Canada balsam. Specimens for molecular analysis were collected in 95 % ethanol. All