Vegetative progeny were obtained from 46 elms (Ulmus glabra Huds.) by grafting. These grafted trees were planted in 2009 in a clone archive in forest plot 264j in the Bielsk Forest District.
After one year of growth, elm clone survival ranged from 38% to 100% (89% on average). Although all clones were of similar age and were grown under similar conditions, their average height was highly variable and ranged from 99.0 cm (clone no. 9473z) to 186.6 cm (clone no. 9645z), while average root collar diameter ranged from 8.4 mm (clone no. 9473z) to 18.0 mm (clone no. 9645z).
There were large differences crown architectural among the different clones, and variation in average shape of the crown was high (from 2.6 in clone no. 9655 to 3.8 in clone no. 9446z).
Index breeding values determined on the standardized data for height, root collar diameter, crown shape and survival, ranged from -0.71 (clone no. 9473z) to 0.61 (clone no. 9645z). Clones from Czerwony Dwór reached a better breeding value (0.17) than clones from Gołdap (-0.0266), and variation in their average breeding values was high (0.197).
This study was carried out in the clone archive of old Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. trees located in the Augustowska Primeval Forest. The aim of the study was to determine the intra-clonal diversity among quantitative and qualitative traits of the vegetative progeny of Scots pine trees older than 200 years. Our analyses included traits such as survival rate, height and diameter at breast height (DBH), stem straightness, length and width of the crowns as well as branch thickness and growth angle. There was no significant correlation between the age of mother trees and the traits of their vegetative progeny. However, mother trees did affect the survival of the progeny. In overall, the survival rate of grafts in the archive is high (about 80% at the age of 13 years) and there have been no significant fluctuations in recent years. Nevertheless, the variability of quantitative traits among vegetative progeny was high with the average height ranging from 2.16 m up to 6.71 m, and in the case of DBH, ranging from 3.23 cm to 12.1 cm. Both, height of trees and their DBH, were significantly different among the analysed clones. These intra-clone differences in growth traits indicate a high environmental impact on the growth and performance of clones. However, the diversity of quantitative and qualitative traits is comparable to the differences observed in the economic seed orchards with seedlings at a similar age. Most of the genotypes planted in the archive are fully viable and have matured to the stage of seed production. The clone archive can thus be viewed as both, a conservation effort and to obtain valuable seeds from the point of view of tree breeding. Therefore, establishing archives of tree clones using valuable genotypes is an effective method of conserving individual genotypes even of very old individuals.
This article reviews the history of plum cultivation and cultivars in Sweden with the aim to describe important heirloom cultivars and to explain how they are conserved in the Swedish National Gene Bank. Commercial plum production in Sweden started around 1890 and was initially in part based on small-fruited local cultivars grown on their own roots. Along with the development of a modern Swedish nursery industry and experimental research the use of grafted trees grew in importance. In the mid-1950s, the yearly plum production in Sweden was estimated to be approximately 2000 tonnes. Since the mid-1980s, production has declined and it is now only about 250 tonnes per year. The work to safeguard heirloom cultivars began with a national inventory in 2005 and since 2012, so-called mandate cultivars have been planted in the Swedish National Gene Bank at Alnarp. Today 45 plum cultivars are preserved with two trees in the gene bank at Alnarp and two trees in local clonal archives.
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana Gaertn., C.A. Mey & Scherb.) has a long history as food and medicinal plant. Glucosinolates (GLS) or their breakdown products are responsible for the pungent taste and claimed medicinal effects. The dominate GLS in horseradish is sinigrin (> 80%) followed by gluconasturtiin and glucobrassicin. A total of 168 Nordic accessions of horseradish were screened for the content of intact glucosinolates. Sinigrin levels varied between 10 and 45, gluconasturtiin between 1.3 and 7.4 and glucobrassicin between 0.1 and 2.6 μmol/g DM. Accessions with high levels of both sinigrin and gluconasturtiin were found. Horseradish accessions are kept as living plants in clonal archives in their respective countries. The task for plant gene banks is not only to conserve genetic resources for the future, but also to stimulate use of the collections for various products and breeding programmes. After further analyses to certify the screening results, selected accessions will form a base for breeding and increased use of horseradish as a condiment to food, natural preservative or in medical treatments
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