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the selection process in horticulture and viticulture. Eremin. G. V. (Ed.) [Современные методологические аспекты организации селекционного процесса в садоводстве и виноградарстве. Еремин. Г. В. (ред.)). Krasnodar. 570 рр. (in Russian). Eremin. V. G., Eremin. G. V. (2014). Clone rootstocks of stone fruits for intensive orchards in the south of Russia [Еремин. В. Г., Еремин. Г. В. Клоповые подвои косточковых культур для интенсивных садов юга России]. Садоводство и виноградарство I Horticulture and Viticul¬tureУ, No. 6, 24-29 (in Russian). Eremin. V. G., Eremin. G. V

. 2005. Performance of sweet cherry trees on Gisela 5 rootstock. ACTA HORT. 667: 389-191. Sitarek M., Grzyb Z.S., 2010. Growth, productivity and fruit quality of ‘Kordia’ sweet cherry trees on eight clonal rootstocks. J. FRUIT ORNAM. PLANT RES. 18(2): 169-176. Stehr R. 2008. Further experiences with dwarfing sweet cherry rootstocks in Northern Germany. ACTA HORT. 795: 185-190. Usenik V., Štampar F., Fajt N. 2008. Sweet cherry rootstock testing in Slovenia. ACTA HORT. 795: 273-276.


The lack of suitable plum rootstocks for Baltic conditions has become a problem during recent years due to changing climatic conditions. Rapid temperature fluctuations between freezing and thawing are occurring more frequently. The winter-hardiness of rootstocks is essential for overwintering of trees in such conditions. The content of accumulated reducing sugars is an important physiological factor influencing wintering ability of trees. The dynamics of reducing sugars was investigated during two winter seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012) in one-year-old ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ (Prunus x rossica Erem.) hybrid plum shoots from two orchards planted in 2001 at Pūre Horticultural Research Centre (Latvia) and Polli Horticultural Research Centre (Estonia). Cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ was grafted on eight clonal rootstocks: ‘St. Julien A’, ‘Brompton’ cuttings, ‘Ackermann’, ‘Pixy’, GF8/1, G5/22, GF655/2, ‘Hamyra’ and eight seedling rootstocks: ‘St. Julien INRA 2’, ‘St. Julien d’Orleans’, ‘St. Julien Noir’, ‘Brompton’ seedlings, ‘Wangenheims Zwetsche’, ‘St. Julien Wädenswill’, ‘Myrobаlan’ and Prunus cerasifera var. divaricata. Trees were planted at 5×3 m spacing in four replications per rootstock with three trees per plot. Shoot samples were harvested five times during the winter period. The concentration of reducing sugars (mg g-1 dry weight) was determined with Bertran’s method. Significant differences in concentration of reducing sugar were found between samples coming from different locations and in two seasons. The maximum concentration of reducing sugar was found in December or January depending on growing location and meteorological conditions


Seven Hevea brasiliensis clones were evaluated on two types of rootstocks, assorted seedling rootstocks (AR) and monoclonal rootstock (MR) over 19 years. Influence of rootstock on scion growth and rubber yield was assessed based on juvenile height, circumference of the main trunk (cm), number of branches, branching height and cumulative dry rubber yield (g per tree per tapping, conventionally abbreviated gt-1 t-1). Highest cumulative yield (g per tree per tapping) over the 12 years for which the trees were tapped was obtained from clone RRII 105 (MR: 1076 g per tree per tapping and AR: 497 g per tree per tapping), followed by RRII 203 (MR: 661; AR: 538), RRII 208 (MR: 477; AR: 486), RRII 118 (MR: 497; AR: 452). Gl 1 yielded the least, 219 g per tree per tapping (MR) and 378 g per tree per tapping (AR); GT1 produced 335 g per tree per tapping (MR) and 375 g per tree per tapping (AR). RRII 118 had the greatest circumference at age 19 (91.4 cm on MR) 88.8 on AR, followed by RRII 105 (MR: 87.4 cm AR: 89.2 cm) and GT 1 (MR: 88.5 cm; AR: 84.4cm). Effect of scion clone was significant (p<0.01) only for trunk circumference at opening, but not for cumulative rubber yield at age 11 (4 years after opening) or cumulative rubber yield at age 19 (12 years after opening). Most importantly, rootstock and clone × rootstock interaction did not significantly affect rubber yield or tree circumference at any evaluation time. There was no evidence to suggest that growth and yield of clones was influenced significantly by rootstock type.


The issue of the influence of rootstock on winter-hardiness of plum (Prunus × rossica Erem.) tree flower buds in the Baltic region is becoming important. The choice of rootstock is the main precondition for obtaining a high yielding and sustainable plum orchard. Freezing of flower buds is one of the most significant damages in winter for stone fruits. The aim of the investigation was to determine the relationship between concentration of dry matter and reducing sugars in annual shoots during winter and wintering ability of trees. The dynamics of reducing sugar concentration in one-year-old shoots during winter was investigated during two successive seasons in two locations. Orchards were planted in 2001 in Latvia and in Estonia. The well-known plum cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ (Prunus rossica Erem.) was grafted on eight clonal rootstocks (‘St. Julien A’, ‘Brompton’, ‘Ackermann’, ‘Pixy’, GF8/1, G5/22, GF655/2, and ‘Hamyra’) and eight generative propagated rootstocks (‘St. Julien INRA 2’, ‘St. Julien d’Orleans’, ‘St. Julien Noir’, ‘Brompton’, ‘Wangenheims Zwetsche’, ‘St. Julien Wädenswill’, ‘Myrobalan’ and Prunus cerasifera var. divaricate). Shoot samples were harvested two times during winter — at the end of January and at the end of March. Dry matter concentration (mg·g−1) and the concentration of reducing sugars (mg·g−1 DM) by Fehling’s solution method was determined. Tree flowering intensity was scored using a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 = no flowers and 5 = abundant flowering. Dry matter concentration in plum shoots varied among rootstocks, years and growing location. In Pūre, Latvia, the largest differences in dry matter concentration were found for trees grafted on ‘St. Julien INRA2’ (in 2011–2012) and ‘Brompton’ cuttings (in 2012–2013) but in Polli, Estonia for trees grafted on G5/22 (in 2011–2012) and ‘Myrobalan’ (in 2012–2013). One of the most stable rootstock/graft combinations in the trial when GF655/2 was used as rootstock, where dry matter concentration was between 491 and 525 mg·g−1, and reducing sugars between 37.5–49.2 mg·g−1, and flowering intensity between 2.5 and 4.

in orchard experiments in Estonia. J. Agric. Sci., 12 (1), 8-13. Haak, E. (2003). The effect of clonal rootstocks and interstem (double- grafted trees) to the growth and yield of apple trees. J. Agric. Sci., 14 (5), 251-259. Haak, E. (2006). Growth intensity of apple-trees on clonal rootstocks before the beginning of fruit bearing. Latvian J. Agron., 9, 28-31. Hrotko, K. (2007). Advances and challenges in Fruit Rootstock Research. Acta Hortic., 732, 33-42. Kurlus, R., Ugolik, M. (1999). Effect of 13 rootstocks on growth and yielding of ‘Ðampion’ apple trees. In

. Available at: (accessed 15 September 2016). Khanizadeh, S., Tsao, R., Granger, R., Coussieau, J., Rousselle, G. L. (2000). New hardy rootstocks from the Quebec apple breeding program. Acta Hort., 538, 719-721 Kivistik, J. (2014). Puuvilja- ja marjasordid: Soovitussortiment [Fruit and Berry Varieties]. Tallinn, Esmatrükk. 223 pp. (in Estonian) Lepsis, J. 1999. History of investigation of apple clonal rootstocks in Latvia. In: Collection of Scientific

.-22. februârî 2013, Jelgava. Latvia University of Agriculture, Jelgava, pp. 122-125 (in Latvian). Grzyb, Z. S., Sitarek, M. (2007). Preliminary results on influence of seedling and clonal rootstocks on tree growth and yield of plum cultivars. Acta Hort., 732, 267-270. Grzyb, Z. S., Sitarek, M., Kozinski, B. (1998). Effect of different rootstocks on growth, yield and fruit quality of four plum cultivars (in Central Poland). Acta Hort., 478, 239-242. Jänes, H., Kahu, K. (2008). Winter injuries of plum cultivars in winters 2005-2007 in Estonia. In: Proceedings of International

, productivity and fruiting of Kordia sweet cherry trees on eight clonal rootstocks. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 18(2): 169-176. Szymczak J.A., Rutkowski K.P., Miszczak A., Rozpara E., 2003. Sensory evaluation of ‘Kordia’ sweet cherry after storage. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 12/53(3): 45-49. Tian S.P., Jiang A.L., Xu Y., Wang Y.S., 2004. Responses of physiology and quality of sweet cherry fruit to different atmospheres in storage. Food Chem. 87: 43-49. Tomala K., Krupa T., Karbowiak A., 2003. Wpływ składu atmosfery na jakość przechowalniczą czereśni [Effect of atmosphere content