Hana Stŕedová, Tomáš Stŕeda and Jaroslav Rožnovský
Official price of farmland in the Czech Republic is based on land value in different soil and climatic conditions. The paper compares relevant climatic and agroclimatic characteristics used for land appraisement. Characteristics defined in climatic region of estimated pedological ecological unit system for two fifty years period 1901-1950 and 1961-2010 were evaluated. Area of interest includes 53 points distributed within nine broad areas of the Czech Republic. It is evident that the development of climate has an enormous impact on soil fertility. Difference of station average values of air temperature of both fifty years vary from −0.5 to 1.1 ◦ C (mean difference is 0.3 ◦ C) in the case of vegetation period. The shift of precipitation is not so evident as in the case of temperature. The long term change in precipitation distribution within a year is documented by a different shift of annual, vegetation period and non-vegetation period values. Moisture certainty in vegetation period decreases in all cases of broad areas (except one region). All 50year averages of investigated parameters had been changed in 1961-2010 compared to the mean of 1901-1950. This should be taken into account when fixing the official price. Climatic region parameters should be replaced by a more complex “agroclimatological characteristic”, which take into account also the basic pedological and plant characteristics, for example the available water holding capacity.
The current division of the Czech Republic into climatic regions was carried out according to basic criteria which meet the assumption of similar conditions for growth and development of agricultural crops. Ten climatic regions in the Czech Republic were labelled with numbers 0 (VT, very hot) to 9 (CH, cold). In this paper we have utilized selected agro-climatic characteristics for these climatic regions, which were not considered in the original classification. Evaluation was performed according to the daily interval of agro-meteorological model AVISO with the use of technical series of meteorological elements of a regular network of 789 grid points (10×10 km) for the period of 1961-2010.
This study determines the approximate duration of the thermal seasons in Warsaw, and investigates their long-term variability. The measurement data come from the Ursynów meteorological station at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS) (λE 21°02’52’’, φN 52°09’38’’, 102.5 m a.s.l.), situated in the south of Warsaw, and comprise mean diurnal air temperatures for the years 1961-2013. In order to identify thermal seasons, the method of five-day rolling averages was applied, which revealed a substantial year-by-year variability. The achieved results were close to those found by other methods for stations situated within the same climatic region. Over the analysed period, winters and springs have become shorter, whereas the other two seasons have become longer. Nevertheless, the positive trend was only statistically significant for thermal summers. The increasing length of the thermal summer in Warsaw Ursynów may be due to the influence of urban heat islands in built-up areas.
Pedologic-ecological estimation in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) means determination of land agronomic productivity and its economical pricing and is expressed as a five position numeral code and mapped as iso-lines. The first position of the code is the climatic region representing approximately the same conditions for agricultural plant growth and development. This climatic regionalization was based on the climatic data from 1901–1950. Currently, there is the need to update their existing zoning due to the technological progress of measurement and development of climate models including estimation of future climate. The aim of the paper is (i) to apply actual climatic data to climatic regionalization and (ii) to estimate what climatic conditions are relevant for actually valid climatic regions. The original methodology currently enables us to unequivocally classify only 17% of the entire territory of the Czech Republic (and 18% of Czech agricultural land). A substantial part of the territory does not fit neatly into individual climatic regions. Subsequently the actually valid ranges of climatic characteristics of individual climatic regions were determined. The GIS layers of individual climatic variables computed with data from 1961–2010 were one by one covered by GIS layers of individual climatic regions based on data from 1901–1950. Interval ranges of climatic region variables determined in this way are valid for the period 1961–2010. The upper limit of air temperature sum above 10 °C and annual air temperature in most of the climatic regions was significantly shifted up in 1961–2010. An increase in precipitation is noticeable in wet climatic regions. Moisture certainty in vegetation season and probability of dry vegetation are the most problematic in terms of Estimated Pedologic-Ecological Units (EPEU) climatic zoning. This should be taken into account when fixing the official soil price.
Sylwester Grajewski, Antoni T. Miler and Bernard Okoński
The paper presents results of studies on seasonal variability of ground water tables recorded in long-term observations of water levels in the Puszcza Zielonka forest complex. The Puszcza Zielonka Forest is located in the middle part of the Warta basin in the central part of the Wielkopolska region. Its western boundary is located approx. 6 km north-east of Poznań. The area is situated in the western part of the Wielkopolska-Mazovian climatic region. The natural landscape is of young glacial type of Pleistocene and Holocene formation. For this reason parent materials for soils in this area were mainly postglacial drifts, deposits coming from the Poznań stage of the Würm glaciation. In terms of granulometric composition these were mainly low clayey sands deposited on loose sands with an admixture of gravel and eroded sandy clay. Scots pine is the dominant species. Oaks, alders, larches and scarce spruces are also found in this area. Predominant sites include fresh mixed forest, fresh mixed coniferous forest, fresh broadleaved forest and alder swamp forest.
Seasonal variability in groundwater levels depends mainly on abiotic factors. Characteristics of stands have only a modifying effect on the dynamics of changes in groundwaters. Slightly greater fluctuations in water levels were recorded in the fresh broadleaved forest site in comparison to the alder swamp forest. There are no marked dependencies of fluctuations in groundwater tables on age classes of the tree stands. Generally a negative correlation was found between variability in groundwater levels and the depth of its table below ground surface (b.g.s.). However, in the conducted studies the hypothesis on the marked delay in the variability of groundwater levels between sites, tree species, age of tree stands or depth of ground water tables was not confirmed.
The objective of this paper was to analyse the effects of catchment area forestation on the temperature of river waters. Two rivers, Czerna Wielka and Szprotawa, were covered in this research project and both are located in south-west Poland, running through the largest compact forest complex in the country, Bory Dolnośląskie. Both of the rivers are located within the same climatic region, and are similar in terms of their hydrology. Land use in the catchment area however is very diverse with 71.6% forest cover in the case of the Czerna Wielka River and direct contact of the forest with the river occurs over 68.3% of its length. For the Szprotawa River, the indices amount to only 39.3% and 21.6%, respectively. Data on the daily water temperatures for both of the rivers were obtained from the Hydrological Yearbooks of Surface Waters for the period 1969–1983. The mean annual water temperature in the analysed period in the case of the Czerna Wielka River amounted to 8.0°C, and in the case of the Szprotawa River it equalled 9.2°C. During the cooler half of the year (November-April), the mean water temperature for the entire examined period amounted to 3.8°C for Czerna Wielka, and 3.6°C for Szprotawa. Higher variability was recorded for the warmer seasons (May-October), where mean temperatures amounted to 12.1°C and 14.7°C, respectively. The obtained results concur with other similar research conducted around the world, and in the context of climate change are of practical value. The important role of forests in the moderation of thermal conditions is evidently unquestionable. Therefore, minimising the impact of unfavourable climatic changes on river ecosystems and their surroundings requires striving for appropriate forest management in the near-bank (buffer) zone along banks of both larger rivers and their tributaries
Periodic structures of Great Lakes levels using wavelet analysis
The recently advanced approach of wavelet transforms is applied to the analysis of lake levels. The aim of this study is to investigate the variability of lake levels in four lakes in the Great Lakes region where the method of continuous wavelet transform and global spectra are used. The analysis of lake-level variations in the time-scale domain incorporates the method of continuous wavelet transform and the global spectrum. Four lake levels, Lake Erie, Lake Michigan, Lake Ontario, and Lake Superior in the Great Lakes region were selected for the analysis. Monthly lake level records at selected locations were analyzed by wavelet transform for the period 1919 to 2004. The periodic structures of the Great Lakes levels revealed a spectrum between the 1-year and 43- year scale level. It is found that major lake levels periodicities are generally the annual cycle. Lake Michigan levels show different periodicities from Lake Erie and Lake Superior and Lake Ontario levels. Lake Michigan showed generally long-term (more than 10 years) periodicities. It was shown that the Michigan Lake shows much stronger influences of inter-annual atmospheric variability than the other three lakes. The other result was that some interesting correlations between global spectrums of the lake levels from the same climatic region were found.
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