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, Oxford University Press. 5. deLisle, J., (2000). China’s Approach to International Law: A Historical Perspective, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (American Society of International Law), Vol.94. 6. Elleman, B.A., (2019). The Making of the Modern Chinese Navy: Special Historical Characteristics, Anthem Press. 7. Guizot, F., (1997). The History of Civilization in Europe, London: Penguin. 8. Hall, W.E., (1880). A Treatise on International Law. 9. Hoffheimer, D.J., (1979). China and the International Legal Order: An Historical Introduction, Case Western Reserve Journal

(étude de la culture, le terme qui était au demeurant employé à l’époque étant celui de « civilisation »). 4 1914-1939 : Caractéristiques de l’approche essentialiste (Wesenskunde) C’est une orientation culturelle essentialiste qui a été privilégiée durant la Première Guerre et jusqu’en 1939. La dénomination en usage est la Wesenskunde (littéralement : science de l’être profond) et les problématiques abordées étaient presque exclusivement pensées en relation à la France. Ainsi, face aux conditions du Traité de Versailles qui était ressenti comme une humiliation par

Literatura [1] Ferguson N.: Civilization. The West and the Rest. Wydawnictwo Literackie. Warszawa 2013. [2] Lewitowicz J.: Podstawy eksploatacji statków powietrznych - Statek powietrzny i elementy teorii. Tom 1. Wydawnictwo ITWL. Warszawa 2001. [3] Lewitowicz J.: Podstawy eksploatacji statków powietrznych - Systemy eksploatacji statków powietrznych. Tom 3. Wydawnictwo ITWL. Warszawa 2006. [4] Lewitowicz J.: Problemy współczesnej teorii eksploatacji - eksploatyki. Problemy eksploatacji, 4 (59), 2005. [5] Lewitowicz J.: Problems of failures of airplanes


Subject and purpose of work: The paper addresses the issue of the attitude of students from Southern Podlasie to their region. Its purpose is to present the stance of young people who are permanent residents in the Eastern Borderlands to their civilizational identity.

Materials and methods: The results shown in the present article come from the research carried out among students of Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska. A questionnaire designed by the current author contained 42 closed, semi-open and open questions. It was conducted in May – 2017 in the auditorium among 214 third year students from the following areas: nursing – 48, sociology – 29, pedagogy – 41, national security – 63, tourism and recreation – 33.

Results: The study demonstrated that 83.3% of the students who identify themselves with the Western civilization and 72.0% of the respondents who identify themselves with both the Eastern and Western civilizations declare to be fully attached to the region. Slightly more than half of the respondents (51.4%) are convinced that they live in a region characterized by cultural diversity. This may suggest that the region of Southern Podlasie is characterized by the presence of the elements defining both the Western and the Eastern civilization.

Conclusions: When summarizing the attitude of the students to the region, it should be noted that over 70% of them fully identify with it. Religion has the greatest influence on the respondents’ regional consciousness. This element should be recognized as the basic factor characterizing the students, which proves that the basic feature which identifies Southern Podlasie is the diversity of denominations.

): available at (6 July 2015). Tsygankov, Andrei P. (2013a): Russia’s Foreign Policy: Change and Continuity in National Identity, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Tsygankov, Andrei P. (2013 b): Vladimir Putin’s Civilizational Turn. Russian Analytical Digest 127: 5-7. Verkhovskii, Aleksandr - Pain, Emil (2012): Civilizational Nationalism: The Russian Version of the ‘Special Path.’ Russian Politics and Law 50 (5): 52-86. Viktorov, Ilja (2014): The Legacy of Tandemocracy: Russia’s Political Elite During Putin’s Third Presidency: Interview

, Macedonia: Furkan ISM. - Herskovits, Melville. 1964. Man and His Works: The Science of Cultural Anthropology. New York, USA: Alfred A. Knopf. - Huntington, Samuel. 1996. The Clash of Civilizations and Remaking the World Order. New York, USA: Simon & Schuster. - Lawrence, Martin. 1924. The Treaties of Peace 1919-1923, II: 957. New Work, USA: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. - Nicosia, Calogero. 2018. “How the ‘Clash of Civilizations’ Explains Turkey-US Relations.” Geopolitical Monitor. February 3.

Introduction Women play a key role in strengthening the dynamism of human civilization. According to Altekar (1938 , p. 1), “one of the best ways to understand the spirit of a civilization and to appreciate its excellences and realise its limitations is to study the history of the position and status of women in it.” Although the ancient Indian texts have focused on women’s visibility in this regard, historians, while reconstructing the past, have created certain spaces for women that exist merely within definite parameters ( Chakravarti & Roy 1988 ). In regard

Introduction Indian civilization has over 2500 years of mapping tradition. During ancient period, Indian scholars were familiar with the idea of scale, length, shape, area and angles. Archeological excavations of the magnificent cities of Indus Valley Civilization ( Mackay 1938 ), hymns and chants of ancient Indian texts viz. Sulvasutras ( Seidenberg 1978 ; van der Waerden 1983 ; Staal 1999 ) corroborate this claim. This legacy continued in the mathematical and astronomical works of great Indian scholars viz. Aryabhatta, Barahamihira, Bhāskara and

Civilization. In Robert C. West (ed.): Handbook of American Indians I. Austin: University of Texas Press, pp. 37-39. WRIGHT CARR, David (1998): Sangre para el sol: las pinturas murales del siglo XVI en la parroquia de Ixmiquilpan, Hidalgo. In Memorias de la Academia Mexicana de la historia correspondiente de la Real Madrid XLI , pp. 73-103.

Computation, pages 2017-2024. IEEE, 2007. [32] Jenkins P. Historical simulations - motivational, ethical and legal issues. Journal of Futures Studies, 11(1):23-42, 2006. [33] Kardashev N. Transmission of information by extraterrestrial civilizations. Soviet Astronomy, 8:217, 1964. [34] Kneebone R. L. Crossing the line: Simulation and boundary areas. Simulation in Healthcare, 1(3):160-163, 2006. [35] Koeplinger D., Delimitrou C., Prabhakar R., Kozyrakis C., Zhang Y., and Olukotun K. Automatic generation of efficient accelerators for reconfigurable hardware. In Proceedings of