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Basic Agreement concluded between the Vatican City State and Israel in 1993 was an important step for the establishment of diplomatic relations. The conclusion of this Agreement is not a question of interreligious and diplomatic, which was associated with the efforts of the Vatican normalization of political relations with various countries. The author has analyzed the document and assess the relations in the perspective of twenty years. He also pointed to the fundamental problems in bilateral relations, and presented an assessment of contemporary relationships. The challenge for the future relations both states will be a consequence of the recognition in 2015 by the Vatican City State independence of Palestine.

at modernising its accounting system (Jones & Lueder, 2011), the federal states carried out reforms to substitute accrual accounting – or a modified version of cash accounting – for cash accounting ( Budäus, Behm, & Adam, 2003 ; Burth & Gnädinger, 2013 ). In the majority of states, however, the reforms aimed at the local level. Only four federal states introduced accrual accounting at the state level and among these only the city state of Hamburg adopted a full accrual accounting and budgeting system. The aim of this paper is twofold: firstly, based on a document


The Bologna archives preserve the bye-laws of 24 „armed societies”, dating from between 1230 and the early 1300s, written in good notary Latin. Though known to exist in other Italian city-states, only few non-Bolognese armed society bye-laws are preserved. These armed societies had disappeared everywhere by the Late Middle Ages.

This article explores the function of these armed societies and the feudal law aspects of the bye-laws - was their function predominantly military, social or political? Why did they suddenly appear, and just as suddenly disappear? How did they fit into Bologna’s constitution - how did they relate to the civic authorities, the guilds?

How did these armed societies operate? Who were the members? What arms did they have? Did they participate in the warfare between the city-states, the battles of the Lombard League and the Holy Roman Empire, the struggles between the Emperor and the Pope, the feuds between the Ghibellines and the Guelphs?


The period sees the transition of the ordinary fighter from feudal levy, yeoman or city burgher militia, to subject in an absolute polity, to today’s concept of the free citizen in a democratic state. In the period, the Swiss Confederacy was the only major polity that was not monarchical, but republican, and at the same time eschewed a standing army in favour of continued reliance on militia throughout.

A commonwealth’s military organisation is clearly one of fundamental importance to its own understanding of the nature of rule - its “constitution”. The article traces the transition and relates it to the concept of government under the different theories of the period.


Singapore’s policies and approach towards the Asia-Pacific region are guided by conservative pragmatism dictated by two imperatives—the geographical constraints of a small city state without a hinterland or natural resources, and the constant need to stay economically competitive and politically relevant in order to survive and thrive. This chapter begins with an overview of the historical development of Singapore and then zooms in to focus on its foreign policy thinking and development approach and examines how these then translate into actual policy and posturing in its immediate neighbourhood and the broader Asia-Pacific region.


The article deals with contents, as well as social contexts and functions of sixteen laws enacted by Motecuhzoma Ilhuicamina or Motecuhzoma I, the fifth ruler (ruled ca. 1440-1460 AD) of a pre-Hispanic city-state Tenochtitlan, the principal capital of the Aztec Empire. The author also focuses on the problem of Motecuhzoma I´s laws´ factual enforcement and discusses its possible limits.

The enactment of Motecuhzoma I´s laws was an important part of state formation process in Tenochtitlan. These laws reinforced the internal hierarchy of Tenochtitlan society and the privileged social position of a tiny ruling class (ruler, nobles by birth, merited non-noble warriors and their quasi-noble descendants), particularly by excluding masses of ordinary people from the exercise of political power, as well as the acquisition, ownership and public display of the so-called “prestige objects”, which were markers of a higher social status (i.e. belonging to the ruling class). Further they established a complex state apparatus of Tenochtitlan (a system of both central and local city-state administration and judiciary), which was headed by a ruler (tlatoani). The laws also helped spread Tenochtitlan official ideology of a religious nature among the population, as they created a mechanism to introduce virtually all nobles and commoners (of both sexes) to the ideology (public schools compulsory attended by all later pubertal and adolescent youth of Tenochtitlan), as well as an organization of priests who dramatized the ideological doctrines by their (mostly public) ritual performancies. Finally, there were also laws concerning the punishment of adulterers and thieves. The factual enforcement of Motecuhzoma I´s laws by Tenochtitlan ruler/state apparatus was limited due to several reasons, e.g. the rise of local autonomous and autarchic socioeconomic units resisting to some degree the power of state and the law enacted by the state.

-2018. Downloaded from: (date of access: 25.08.2019). 8. Decision on approval of the Concept of “SMART CITY KYIV 2020”. Downloaded from: (date of access: 02.09.2019). 9. Draft of the order of the Kyiv city state administration “On approval of the functioning of the automated system of payment of fares in urban public transport regardless of ownership”. Downloaded from: https

: a discussion”, 155-174 Firszt, Stanislaw, 1998. Urzbrojenie oddzialow miejskich w sredniowleczu n przykladzie miast slaskich, Archeoligia Historica Polona, volume 7, Turn: Uniwiersytet Mikolaja Kopernika Gies, J., 1995. Cathedral, Forge and Waterwheel: Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages. Harper Perennial. Guilds, Innovation and the European Economy, 1400-1800, a review, Regina Grafe, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Volume 40, Number 1, (Summer 2009), pp. 78-82 Johanek et a., 2000. A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultures: An Investigation

I., A simplified 3D model for tunnel construction using tunnel boring machines, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 23, 2008, 38-45. [16] MYRIANTHIS M.L., Ground disturbance associated with shield tunnelling, in overconsolidated stiff clay, Springer-Verlag, Rock Mechanics 7, 1975, 35-65. [17] PECK R.B., Deep excavations and tunnelling in soft ground, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Mexico City, State-of-the-art Volume, 1969, 225-290. [18] TALMON A.M., AANEN L., BEZUIGEN A., van der ZON W

Experiment gesehen (S. 146). Hilfreich ist diese Veröffentlichung – und dies sei schon zu Beginn vermerkt –, da ihre 15 Autoren in 16 Beiträgen zumeist auf vordergründige Wertungen verzichten. Hingegen wird einer Güterabwägung das Wort geredet, zu der unterschiedlichste Argumente beigesteuert werden. Strukturiert sind die Beiträge in vier Kapitel. In den „Einleitenden Bemerkungen“ umreißt Jaeger als einer der Herausgeber zunächst das Thema „Stadtstaat“ bzw. „City-State“ und weist auf die Probleme, mit denen ein Kleinstaat in der gegenwärtigen (welt