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The effect of time, temperature, the catalyst particle size and the ratio of the catalyst weight to the leaching solution volume (S:L) on the treatment of spent vanadium catalyst components was determined using citric acid solutions at atmospheric pressure. The optimal parameters of catalyst leaching in 10% acid solutions at atmospheric pressure are: T = 323 K, t = 4 h, the particle size of less than 0.160 mm, the S:L ratio below 0.1. Under these conditions it was possible to dissolve about 90% of vanadium and potassium compounds and more than 60% of iron compounds contained in the catalyst. These results fall within the scope of research on a comprehensive method for recovering spent vanadium catalyst components.
Prebiotics are such indigestible food ingredients that enter the colon and serve as nutrient for bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Since fibres and oligosaccharides are the typical prebiotics, we produced prebiotics in our experiments with the reaction of lactose and malic acid as well as citric acid, where these reactions made use of an appropriate concentration of these substances, had an adequate duration, and were carried out under optimal temperature conditions. We determined the optimal parameters of the reaction, measured the loss of the starting materials as well as the increase in concentration of the end-product, and analysed the total sugar content of the hydrolysed prebiotics after hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid. In vitro experiments were performed to demonstrate our end-product’s resistance to carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, which is a fundamental requirement for a prebiotic so that upon reaching the colon it can serve as nutrient for the probiotic bacteria found there.
A straightforward, one-pot multicomponent synthesis of 1-(benzothiazolylamino)methyl-2-naphthol derivatives was achieved by condensation of 2-naphthol, aldehydes, and 2- aminobenzothiazole catalyzed by a small amount of citric acid, which acts as a benign enviermentally catalyst. Mild conditions with excellent yields and a simple isolation procedure are noteworthy advantages of this method.
Rouhollah Nourmohammadi, Heshmatollah Khosravinia, Nazar Afzali and Milad Manafi
Analytical Chemists, Arlington, DC.
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Abdolrahman Rahimian-Boogar, Hassan Salehi and Noshin Mir
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In this work, highly ordered porous anodic alumina (PAA) with tapered pore structure and interpore distance (Dc) in the range of 550 nm to 650 nm were fabricated. To produce hexagonal close-packed pore structure a two-step process, combining anodization in etidronic acid electrolyte in the first step and high-concentration, high-temperature anodization in citric acid electrolyte in the second step, was applied. The Al pre-patterned surface obtained in the first anodization was used to produce regular tapered pore arrays by subsequent and alternating anodization in 20 wt.% citric acid solution and pore wall etching in 10 wt.% phosphoric acid solution. The height of the tapered pores was ranging between 2.5 μm and 8.0 μm for the PAA with Dc = 550 nm and Dc = 650 nm, respectively. The geometry of the obtained graded structure can be used for a production of efficient antireflective coatings operating in IR spectral region.