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Göteborg, Sweden, and possible association with dental caries. Swed Dent J 15(3):117–23. Holmén A, Strömberg U, Magnusson K, and Twetman S. 2013. Tobacco use and caries risk among adolescents – a longitudinal study in Sweden. BMC Oral Health 13:31. Idrizovic K, Zenic N, Tahiraj E, Rausavljevic N, and Sekulic D. 2015. Cigarette smoking among 17–18 year old adolescents – prevalence and association with sociodemographic familial sport and scholastic factors. Med Pr 66(2):153–63. Lahti S, Sipilä K, Taanila A, and Laitinen J. 2008. Oral pain and associated factors among

Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Several studies have shown that many factors including genetic variation, psychological, and environmental factors are associated with cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence [ 1 ]. Genetic variation directly involved in the metabolism of drugs such as rs1051730 genetic variants in the nicotine acetylcholine receptor gene cluster ( CHARNA5 – CHARNA3 – CHARNB4 ) and cytochrome P450s (CYPs). CYP2A6 is highly polymorphic with reduced function alleles leading to metabolic inactivation of

-Pineda, S. Feng, J. Wang, Q. Liang, and H. Roethig: Evaluation of Bio-markers of Exposure to Selected Cigarette Smoke Constituents in Adult Smokers Switched to Carbon-Filtered Cigarettes in Short-Term and Long-Term Clinical Studies; Nicotine Tob. Res. 10 (2008) 1761–1772. 18. Gilpin, E., S.W. Cavin, and J.P. Pierce: Adult Smokers Who Do Not Smoke Daily; Addiction 92 (1997) 473–480. 20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Prevalence of Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults and Changes in Prevalence of Current and Some Day Smoking - United States, 1996

, Smoking, and Occupation on Ventilation; Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 87 (1963) 684–693. DOI: 10.1164/arrd.1963.87.5.684 6. Bernaards, C.M., J.W. Twisk, J. Snel, W. van Mechelen, and H.C. Kemper: Is Calculating Pack-Years Retrospectively a Valid Method to Estimate Life-Time Tobacco Smoking? A Comparison Between Prospectively Calculated Pack-Years and Retrospectively Calculated Pack-Years; Addiction 96 (2001) 1653–1661. DOI: 10.1080/09652140120080778 7. Pérez-Stable, E.J., N.L. Benowitz, and G. Marin: Is Serum Cotinine a Better Measure of Cigarette Smoking Than Self

R. Khaddaria: Perceptions of Health Risk and Smoking Decisions of Young People; Health Econ. 21 (2012) 865–877. DOI: 10.1002/hec.1760 55. Morrell, H.E., D.K. Lapsley, and B.L. Halpern-Felsher: Subjective Invulnerability and Perceptions of Tobacco-Related Benefits Predict Adolescent Smoking Behavior; J. Early Adolescence 36 (2016) 679–703. DOI: 10.1177/0272431615578274 56. Chassin, L., C.C. Presson, J.S. Rose, and S.J. Sherman: From Adolescence to Adulthood: Age-Related Changes in Beliefs About Cigarette Smoking in a Midwestern Community Sample; Health Psychol. 20

. Environ. Epidemiol. 11 (2001) 369–380. 12. Eudy, L.W., F.A. Thome, D.L. Heavner, C.R. Green, and B.J. Ingebrethesen: Studies on the vapor-particu-late phase distribution of environmental nicotine by selected trapping and detection methods; Proceedings, 79 th Annual meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, Paper 86-38.7, 1986. 13. Roethig, H.J., B.K. Zedler, R.D. Kinser, S. Feng, B.L. Nelson, and Q. Liang: Short-term clinical evaluation of a second-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system; J. Clin. Pharmacol. 47 (2007) 518–530. 14. ASTM. Standard

systematic review. Maturitas 61:287-98. Pawlińska-Chmara R, Szwed A. 2008. Cigarette smoking and age at natural menopause of women in Poland. Internet J Biol Anthropol 2(1) doi: 10.5580/4c7. Parazzini F, Progetto Menopausa Italia Study Group. 2007. Determinants of age at menopause in women attending menopause clinics in Italy. Maturitas 56:280-87. Przychodni A. 2010. Menopauza w ujęciu biologicznym i społecznym. Kielce: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Humanistyczno- Przyrodniczego Jana Kochanowskiego. Register CR, Cline M, Carol A, Shively CA. 2002. Health issues in

relationship with inhaled steroid treatment. Thorax 2009;64:1019-24. doi: 10.1136/thx.2009.114629 23. Carpagnano GE, Ruggieri C, Scioscia G, Storto MM, Zoppo L, Foschino-Barbaro MP. Is the exhaled breath temperature sensitive to cigarette smoking? COPD 2016;13:642-6. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2016.1143458 24. Paredi P, Kharitonov SA, Barnes PJ. Faster rise of EBT in asthma: a novel marker of airway inflammation? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;165:181-4. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.165.2.2103053 25. Xepapadaki P, Xatziioannou A, Chatzicharalambous M, Makrinioti H, Papadopoulos NG

Abstract

Chronic nicotinism has negative effects, both local and systemic. Its local effects are related to both the immediate thermal influence, as well as the toxic action of the substances contained in the smoke. In addition, the microflora colonizing dental plague is changed. The damage and the inflammatory processes that are incurred, affect the bone tissue of the alveolar processes, the mucosa, gums, and the tooth enamel. In this study, the tobacco smoking-related profile of patients being treated by way of implants was determined. Moreover, the relationship between cigarette smoking and pain sensation was assessed in patients undergoing surgical and prosthetic procedures in the oral cavity. The questionnaire survey covered 464 patients receiving prosthetic treatment at the “Dental” Non-Public Health Care Centre in Tomaszow Mazowiecki. The patients answered questions concerning their sex, age, the period of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day and the sensation of pain during bone reconstruction, implant placement and prosthetic procedures. The most numerous group of patients treated with implants were women: either non-smoking or smoking for less than 20 years at a level of less than 20 cigarettes a day, and men aged 40-60 years who have been smoking for over 20 years, at more than 20 cigarettes a day. The results of the survey reveal that non-smoking patients felt pain during bone reconstruction, implant placement and prosthetic procedures more frequently.

.T., J. Namenxi, H.C. Yen, J.L. Mauderly, and R.G. Cuddihy: Physical characterization of cigarette smoke aerosol generated from a Walton smoke ma-chine; Aerosol Sci. Technol. 12 (1990) 364–375. 5. Russell, M.A.H. and C. Feyerabend: Cigarette smoking: a dependence on high-nicotine boli; Drug. Metab. Rev. 8 (1978) 29–57. 6. Frost, B.E., D.C. Mariner, and N.M. Sinclair: Factors relating to nicotine physio-chemistry and retention in human smokers; in : Proceedings of the CORESTA Congress, October 1998, Brighton, UK, 211–218. 7. Rose, J.E., F.M. Behm, E.C. Westman, and R