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References 1. Breivik H, Collett B, Ventafridda V, Cohen R, Gallacher D. Survey of chronic pain in Europe: prevalence, impact on daily life, and treatment. Eur J Pain 2006; 10: 287-333. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2005.06.009 2. Viana MC, Lim CW, Garcia Pereira F, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, Bruffaerts R, et al. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain: Findings from 19 Countries. J Pain 2018; 19: 99-110. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2017.08.011 3. Custom Consumption Graphs for Opioid Medicines [Internet]. [Place unknown]: University of

and Practice. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis; 1996: 3-18 5. Schnabel A, Pogatzki-Zahn E. Predictors of chronic pain following surgery. What do we know? Schmerz 2010; 24: 517-531. doi: 10.1007/s00482-010-0932-0 6. Lake A. Chronic post-surgical pain: Prevention remains better than cure. The Internet Journal of Anaesthesiology [Internet] 2007 [cited 2017, Dec 11]; 15(2): 3):[about 2pp.]. Available from: http://ispub.com/IJA/15/2/9423 7. Stoelting RK, Hiller SC. Pharmacology & Physiology in Anesthetic Practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006 8

1 Introduction Chronic pain is a prevalent and costly health care issue worldwide. 2 The social and economic impact of individuals suffering from chronic pain is well documented in the literature. 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 In Australia, one in five people is thought to live with chronic pain, and the prevalence rises to one in three among Australians aged >65 years. 8 Chronic pain is often difficult and complex to treat and has become Australia's third most costly health problem. 9 , 10 Current evidence suggests that chronic pain is managed effectively when a

Abstract

Introduction. Pain is one of the most frequent human ailment. Not not only is it the first and often the only symptom of ongoing disease process, but also a warning of impending danger. According to the European epidemiological studies, it is estimated that chronic pain occurs in 19% of the population. This means that within a year this condition is diagnosed in 7 million patients in Poland. Treatment of chronic pain is complicated due to the variety of its origin.

Aim. Influence of chronic pain in hospitalized patients on their daily quality of life.

Material and methods. The study included 80 patients with a chronic spinal pain syndrome. To evaluate the intensity of pain, the numerical scale (NRS), the verbal scale (VRS) and the abbreviated version of the McGill Questionnaire were used. To measure the quality of life, the SF-36 was used.

Results. The results of analysis of the collected material confirmed the impact of chronic pain on the quality of life of the hospitalized. Assessment of pain intensity decreased in the group of patients after one week of treatment. On the other hand, in assessing the overall perception of health, quality of life and its various dimensions, a difference between the two groups and the different stages of the study was observed. Own study confirms the equivalence of psychosocial factors modulating the level of pain and the quality of life.

Conclusions. There is a relationship between pain intensity and the level of quality of life as well as its individual components before and after the treatment in patients with chronic spinal pain. Some significant changes between the variables were separated in the accepted stages of the study among people with chronic pain.

References 1. Keefe FY, Lumley MA, Buffington ALH, Carson JW, Studts JL, Edwards CL. et al. Changing face of pain: evolution of pain research in psychosomatic medicine. Psychosom Med 2002; 64: 921-38. 2. Andersson GBJ. Epidemiological features of chronic low-back pain. Lancet 1999; 354: 581-5. 3. Breivik H, Collett B, Ventafridda V, Cohen R, Gallacher D. Survey of chronic pain in Europe: prevalence, impact on daily life, and treatment. Eur Pain 2006; 10: 287-333. 4. Lewandowski W, Jacobson A. Bridging the gap between mind and body: a biobehavioral model of the

people with haemophilia (PwH) is influenced by factors that are important to them, including prophylaxis, chronic pain, concomitant conditions and hospital admission. MATERIALS AND METHODS The CHESS study The ‘Cost of Haemophilia in Europe: a Socioeconomic Survey’ (CHESS) study was a cross-sectional, retrospective study carried out in 2015, where patients aged ≥18 years with severe haemophilia in five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK) were invited to participate [ 14 ] . 1,285 patients were recruited by 139 haematologists and haemophilia

reported age of pain management initiation was 11.5 years, despite this being a patient population who have benefited from lifelong prophylaxis. Additionally, a discrepancy between the patients’ self-reported pain level compared to their caregivers’ and providers’ perception of their pain was documented. Both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies have a role in the management of acute and chronic pain [ 7 ] , and PWH are becoming more interested in nonpharmacologic pain management, including complementary and alternative therapy (CAM) options. The use of CAM has

years. 4 At present, clinical pain management mainly focuses on pain relief and pays little attention to the psychological state of PHN patients. Being a chronic pain, PHN is not only a physiological process but also a complex psychological process. About 45% of PHN patients have negative emotions such as anxiety and depression, 5 and even 60% of them have suicidal thoughts. 6 Studies showed that psychological factors play a significant role in predicting the pain experience of patients with pain, 7 which can help patients to relieve pain. Therefore, it is

] . To meet that call for action, multidisciplinary bleeding disorder clinicians will need the knowledge, skills, and tools to effectively assess and communicate with patients about pain in order to develop acceptable and impactful treatment plans. Chronic pain is a complex, biopsychosocial experience requiring a comprehensive focused assessment that covers multiple domains, including sensory, affective, and motivational aspects of pain, impact of pain on psychological and physical functioning, and preferred treatment approaches [ 11 , 12 , 13 ] . No pain assessment

Summary

Total extraperitoneal hernioplasty (TEP) has become increasingly used by surgeons. The TEP procedure is technically more challenging due to space constraints and has a higher learning curve. Chronic groin pain after inguinal hernia repair has become the dominant outcome investigated rather than recurrence. We aimed to evaluate the rate of chronic groin pain after TEP inguinal hernia repair performed at the Department of Surgical Oncology in G. Stranski University Hospital – Pleven. The procedures performed totaled 36. There was one conversion, and the patient was excluded from the study because the procedure performed was not laparoscopic. Distribution according to inguinal hernia type was: 41.7% - indirect hernia (15), 36.1% - direct hernia (13), 13.9% combined (5), and 8.3% femoral (3). Twenty-eight of the patients (80%) had preoperative pain. Two of the patients with chronic groin pain had had their meshes fixed with tacks (14.3% from the tack group with p=0.7). Our study showed that the TEP procedure is a safe, feasible operation with minimal risk for complications. Using tacks for mesh fixation is associated with higher rates of chronic groin pain, but it does not affect the recurrence rate, which correlates with the literature review data.