In this study, the biosynthesis of the plastid pigments chlorophyll a and b was examined for the most common shrubs in hornbeam-oak forest stands of the Western forest-steppe zone of Ukraine. The characteristics of the pigments’ biosynthesis were determined in terms of plant species, vegetation period and growth conditions (under canopy cover and out in the open). The gathered data on the changes of the pigment complex with respect to the examined variables confirms the sensitivity of plastid pigment biosynthesis to environmental factors.
Hanna Huliaieva, Iryna Tokovenko, Victor Maksin, Volodymyr Kaplunenko and Antonina Kalinichenko
The laboratory experiments have been found that soaking seeds Galega orientalis L. (Fodder galega) in nanoaquacitrates solutions of Mn (10 and 20 mg/dm3), Mo (4 mg/dm3) and Mg (2 and 4 mg/dm3), has been lead to germination energy rise, while Mn (10 and 20 mg/dm3) and Mo (4 mg/dm3) concentrations has been influenced germinating ability. At the same time, the soaking seeds in solution of nanoaquacitrates Mn (20 mg/dm3) had the biggest stimulatory effect on the accumulation 7 daily sprouts mass (on 18%). It has been shown that soaking seeds in nanoparticles Mn and Mo solutions leads to the increase of catalase activities (especially under the influence of manganese) and peroxidase activities (under molybdenum influence). Applying the method of chlorophyll a fluorescence in the field and greenhouse experiments with Galega orientalis L. plants, artificial infected with phytoplasma Acholeplasma laidlawii var. granulum st. 118 the following changes in the photosynthetic apparatus has been indicated: reduction in the length of the light-antenna, blocking transport of electrons in plastoquinone pool PSII with reducing the pool of electron acceptors. It has also been indicated that photochemical activity resistance of the photosynthetic apparatus decreases while its stability increases, as result of described above effects the concentration of chlorophyll a and b in plants leaves decreases. The above-mentioned negative effects have been deactivated through foliar treatment of infected Galega orientalis L. plants with nanoaquacitrates solution Mo (4 mg/dm3) that allow increasing of photochemical resistance of photosynthetic apparatus as well as chlorophyll content in leaves. The foliar treatment with Mn (20 mg/dm3) solution of the infected plants, in compared with infected plants without treatment, resulted in more significant increase of Ki value (which correlate to the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity), which is explaining anti-mycoplasma effect of this solution.
long phytol group in the tail. The major chlorophylls in plants include chlorophyll a ( Chl-a ) and chlorophyllb ( Chl-b ) ( Garousi et al., 2015a ). Chlorophylls are essential tetrapyrroles responsible for harvesting solar energy, charge separation, and electron transport in photosynthesis. They mainly capture light in the antenna complex via photosystem II, with subsequent electron transport ( Taiz and Zeiger, 2009 ). They differ slightly only in the composition of a side chain (in Chl-a , it is –CH 3 , and in Chl-b , it is –CHO). Leaf chlorophyll content is
Peter Kováčik, Michaela Havrlentová and Vladimír Šimanský
material containing nitrate. In Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 85, no. 2 , pp. 591-594.
EBBS, S. - UCHIL, S. 2008. Cadmium and zinc induced chlorosis in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern] involves preferential loss of chlorophyllb. In Photosynthetica, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 49-55.
ERCOLI, L. - MARIOTTI, M. - NICCOLAT, L. - MASONI, A. - ARDUINI. 2008. The use of titanium shavings as a fertilizer alternative for maize production. In Agrochimica, vol. LII, no. 2, pp. 1- 17.
KOVÁČIK, P. - ONDRIŠÍK, P. - KOZÁNEK, M
Mohmmad Hossein Aminifard, Abbas Jorkesh, Hamid-Reza Fallahi and Khosro Alipoor
This study was aimed to investigate the effect of thiamine (Th) foliar application on some morpho-physiological aspects in coriander and fenugreek. Three levels of Th (250, 500 and 750 ppm) plus control treatment (distilled water) were studied under controlled greenhouse conditions. All the levels of Th, in particular the concentration of 500 ppm, increased the vegetative growth of coriander. 1000-grain weight, contents of nitrogen and phosphorus, carotenoid and chlorophyll b contents were the highest at a concentration of 750 ppm. Fenugreek vegetative growth also responded positively to the application of Th especially at a concentration of 750 but also 500 ppm increased the content of leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, phenolics and antioxidant activity. Overall, the performance of coriander and fenugreek was improved by the application of Th foliar at all levels.
O. Sofalian, P.B. Miandoab, A. Asghari, M. Sedghi and A. Eshghi
This study was conducted to evaluate the salinity tolerance in seedling stage of soybean (Glycine max L.). Factorial experiment was done based on randomized complete block design with three replicates. 17 soybean genotypes were used in three salinity stress levels (consisting of control, 75 mM and 150 mM NaCl stress). The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse condition and proline, sodium, potassium, and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a/b and total chlorophyll content were examined. To create salinity stress, NaCl was used in the experiment. The results revealed that different salinity stress had significant effects on all traits except for chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a/b. The cluster analysis in the control and at 75 and 150 mM salinity levels classified genotypes into two, two and three groups respectively. In each condition, the dpx and clean genotypes were placed in a group which the average traits were higher than the other genotypes. This can be generalized to the conditions of control as well as 75 and 150 mM salinity stress. Regression analysis showed possible informative loci encoding protein markers that was probable potential for selection strategies for salt weather proved by complementary tests.
Alena Andrejiová, Alžbeta Hegedűsová, Ivana Mezeyová and Elka Kóňová
Young plants, also called “microgreens”, are different kinds of vegetables, grains and herbs grown to the phenological phase of cotyledons, or to the development of the first pair of true leaves. The aim of the work was to study the influence of lighting on the young plants quality in selected 11 vegetables species. The experiment was carried out during the winter time in a heated greenhouse of the Botanical Gardens of SUA in Nitra. For the lighting there were used linear fluorescent lamps FLUORA T8 - L 36W / 77 - G13 during the whole period of cultivation. According to our results, the lighting had a positive impact on the quality of harvested plants. The higher contents of vitamin C, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were estimated in comparison with the control variant without lighting.
Mina Moqhaddam, Zeinab Arefnezhad and Mehdi Khayyat
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of two girdling dates (late April and early September) on fruit quality and carbohydrate accumulation in barberry shrubs (Berberis vulgaris L.) during the years 2016–2017. One year old shoots were ringed and fruit characteristics were monitored for two continues year. Data showed that the girdling caused a significant increase in the ascorbic acid content in fruit. Similarly, anthocyanin and total acidity were affected by girdling compared to control in 2017. September-girdled shrubs had the highest amount of fresh mass but the dry mass was not changed. It was shown that chlorophyll b increased in the girdled shrubs compared to control. September girdling reduced the carbohydrate content in leaves. In contrast, it increased the carbohydrate content in shoots. In addition, there was a significant difference between starch in the shoot and starch in leaf. Owing to the obtained results, early September girdling caused a broad range on fruit quality.
Ewa Gajewska, Daniel Drobik, Marzena Wielanek, Joanna Sekulska-Nalewajko, Jarosław Gocławski, Janusz Mazur and Maria Skłodowska
Hydroponically grown wheat seedlings were treated with 50 μM N i and/or 15 μM Se. After a 7-day culture period, their growth parameters, N i, Se, F e, and M g contents, electrolyte leakage, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and photochemical activity of photosystem II were determined. Exposure of wheat seedlings to N i alone resulted in reduction in the total shoot and root lengths, by 22% and 50%, respectively. Addition of Se to the N i-containing medium significantly improved the growth of these organs, compared to the seedlings subjected to N i alone. Application of Se decreased the accumulation of N i in shoots and roots and partially alleviated the N i-induced decrease in F e and M g concentations in shoots. Electrolyte leakage increased in response to N i stress, but in shoots it was diminished by Se supplementation. Exposure to N i led to a decrease in chlorophyll a and b contents and enhancement of chlorophyll a/b ratio, but did not influence the concentration of carotenoids. Enrichment of the N i-containing medium with Se significantly increased chlorophyll b content, compared to the seedlings treated with N i alone. Photochemical activity, estimated in terms of the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II , decreased in response to N i treatment but was significantly improved by simultaneous addition of Se. Results of our study suggest that alleviation of N i toxicity in wheat seedlings by Se supplementation may be related to limitation of N i uptake.