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References 1. Foreyt J., Goodrick G., GottoA. (1981). Limitations of behavioral treatment of obesity: Review and analysis , Journal Of Behavioral Medicine, 4(2), 159-174. 2. WHO. Obesity, Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic (2000). Report of a WHO Consultation , WHO Technical Report Series 894. 3. Ebbeling C.B., Rawlak D.B., Ludwig D.S. (2002). Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure , Lancet 360: 473–482. 4. Lobstein T., Baur L., Uauy R. (2004). Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health , Obes Rev, 5(Suppl.1

REFERENCES 1. World Health Organization (WHO). Obesity and overweight fact sheet, (2017, accessed 9 November 2017). 2. Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, et al. Global, regional and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults 1980-2013: A systematic analysis. Lancet. 2014; 384(9945): 766-781. 3. Wabitsch M, Moss A, Kromeyer-Hauschild K. Unexpected plateauing of childhood obesity rates in developed countries. BMC Medicine. 2014; 12: 17. 4. Blüher S, Meigen C, Gausche R, et al. Age

., Fernandez-Pachon, M. S., Ortega Mde, L., Valero, E., Martin, F. M., Jauregui-Lobera, I., Berna, G. (2012). Two methods to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 8–9 year-old-children in Seville, Spain. Nutr. Hosp ., 27 (2), 463–468. Chen, F., Wang, Y., Shan, X., Cheng, H., Hou, D., Zhao, X., Wang, T., Zhao, D., Mi, J. (2012). Association between childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome: Evidence from a large sample of Chinese children and adolescents. PLoS One , 7 (10), e47380. Cole, T. J., Flegal, K. M., Nicholls, D., Jackson, A. A. (2007). Body mass

Introduction Childhood obesity is associated with significant health problems, and it is an important early risk factor for much adult morbidity and mortality ( 1 ). The consequences of obesity include diseases and states affecting almost all systems and organs. Among the more common consequences of childhood obesity in future life are type 2 diabetes, elevated blood pressure, asthma, cardiovascular diseases, depression and problems with the skeletal system ( 2 ). The percentage of children who are obese or overweight at the beginning of their school education is

). Thinking with paint and water (an interview with Terry Wilson, Deanna Elliott, Diana Foreland, and Teresa Dixon). International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies, 5 ((4.2)), 854-864. Dahlberg, G., & Moss, P. (2005). Ethics and politics in early childhood education. New York: RoutledgeFalmer. Dahlberg, G., Moss, P., & Pence, A. (2013). Beyond quality in early childhood education and care: Languages of Evaluation (3rd ed). London, UK: Routledge. Elliott, C. (2016). Find your greatness: Responsibility, policy, and the problem of childhood obesity. In J


Since their publication in 1965, the Bradford Hill criteria for causality have been largely used as a framework for causal inference in epidemiology. We aim at employing this classical approach to shed new light onto the web of causation of childhood obesity. Although the fundamental cause of obesity is the long-term imbalance between energetic need and intake, this medical condition is multifactorial in its origin, influenced by genetic, behavioral, socioeconomic, and environmental factors. This imbalance leads to accumulation of excessive adipose tissue. Observational studies tend to mostly quantify association between dietary factors and accumulation of adipose tissue. On the other hand, multivariate analysis proved some of these associations to be spurious, therefore prospective trials are needed to demonstrate causality. Short term experimental studies have been conducted to identify unique dietary pattern changes on specific outcomes, but long term, community-based studies would offer more comprehensive answers on dietary pattern effects. We conducted a literature review on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. From a total of 323 papers identified at first stage, we further discuss the applicability of Bradford Hill criteria for 31 articles, by examples of dietary patterns and accumulation of excess body fat as exposure-response associations. We also put forward and analyzed the evidence prospective studies would bring, as foundation for future interventions.

;1790(3):155-60. DOI: 10.1016/j. bbagen.2008.11.009 9. Fuhrman B. Regulation of hepatic paraoxonase-1 expression. J Lipids. 2012; 2012:684010. DOI: 10.1155/2012/684010 10. She ZG, Chen HZ, Yan Y, Li H, Liu DP. The human paraoxonase gene cluster as a target in the treatment of atherosclerosis. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012 Mar;16(6):597-632. DOI: 10.1089/ars.2010.3774 11. Koncsos P, Seres I, Harangi M, Illyés I, Józsa L, Gönczi F, et al. Human paraoxonase-1 activity in childhood obesity and its relation to leptin and adiponectin levels. Pediatr Res. 2010 Mar;67

among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010. JAMA 2012; 307: 483-90. 5. Wang Y, Lobstein T. Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. Int J Pediatr Obes 2006; 1: 11-25. 6. Wijnhoven TM, van Raaij JM, Spinelli A, Rito AI, Hovengen R, Kunesova M et al. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2008: weight, height and body mass index in 6-9-year-old children. Pediatr Obes 2013; 8: 79-97. 7. Dehghan M, Akhtar-Danesh N, Merchant AT. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutr J 2005; 4: 24. 8. Stamatakis E, Primatesta P, Chinn S, Rona R

. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007;85(6):1533-1539. 21. Ebbeling CB, Pawlak DB, Ludwig DS. Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet. 2002; 360(9331):473-82. 22. Young JH, Parler P, Bristol B, Klag MJ. The coming epidemic: hypertension in rural Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. J Hum Hypertens. 2005;19:145-148. 23. Bassali R, Waller JL, Gower B, Allison J, Davis CL. Utility of waist circumference percentile for risk evaluation in obese children. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity. 2010;5(1):97-101. 24. Choi JW, Pai SH, Kim SK

REFERENCES 1. Memedi R, Tasic V, Nikolic E, Jancevska A, Gucev Z. Obesity in childhood and adolescence, genetic factors. Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki). 2013;34(2):85-89. 2. Wang Y, Lobstein T. Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2006;1(1):11-25. 3. Ebbeling CB, Pawlak DB, Ludwig DS. Childhood obesity: publichealth crisis, common sense cure. Lancet. 2002;360(9331):473–482. 4. Krstevska-Konstantinova M, Jancevska A, Kocova M, Gucev Z. Weight, height and puberty in a cohort of Macedonian girls. Med Arh. 2009